Temas

El typo de la tema
El nombre del tema
El nombre analítico del tema
La ortografía de Ximénez (quc)
La ortografía contemporánea en K'iche'
Imagen Tipo Nombre Ortografía Descripción
linaje The First Four Women PRIMERAS_MUJERES
xoccahaub
E ixoq ajawab'

After blinding the eyes of the first four men, the gods create the first four women (34r): Kaqa Palo Ja’, Chomi Ja’, Tz’ununi Ja’, and Kak’ixa Ja’ according to Sam Colop’s modern orthography (2008: 134).

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persona ajpatan AJPATAN
ahpatan
ajpatan

Matsumoto (2017:198 n 177) notes that "the ajpatan (lit. 'those of the tribute') were those who paid tribute (Carmack 1979:81; e.g., Coto 1983 [1656]:403; Guzmán 1984:68). In pre-Columbian times, patan referred not only to tribute duties but also to “a variety of obligations of life,” such as tending the milpa or aiding community members (Hill 1992:138). After the Conquest, its semantic field widened to include service and economic obligations to the colonial government and the Catholic Church (Hill 1992:138; e.g., Coto 1983 [1656]:377).

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topónimo Xelajuj XELAJUJ
xelahu
Xelajuj

Observa Sam Colop (2008: 200n347): "Es el actual municipio de Quetzaltenango".

Christenson (2007: 280fn783) notes, "Xe' Laju (Below Ten). This is a contracted form of the full name of this site, Xe' Laju[j No'j] (Below Ten No'j—a day on the traditional highland Maya calendar). According to native chronicles, this was the principle settlement in the southern Quetzaltenango basin, although its precise location is unknown. Modern Quetzaltenango is the second largest city in Guatemala."

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topónimo Saqulewab SAQULEWAB
vtinamit chicut zaculeuab
Saqulewab

La definición geográfica es más clara en el texto k'iche' que en la traducción castellana del padre Ximénez. Observa Colop (2008: 253fn346), "Esta es la forma plural de Saqulew, 'tierra blanca'. Se refiere a lo que ahora se conoce como Zaculeu, territorio mam".

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linaje Saqajib SAQAJIB
zacahib
Saqajib
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persona K'ikab KIKAB
eꜫaꜫ quicab
K'ikab

Recinos (2012: 179fn44) observa que Cag-Quicab, "de muchos brazos, interpreta Ximénez. Puede ser el de las manos de fuego."

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persona Tepepul TEPEPUL
tepepul ztayul
Tepepul

Señala el lingüista k'iche' Sam Colop (2008: 252fn339) que "Este nombre proviene del náhuatl, tepetl, 'montaña' (Kartunnen, 1992), y -po: l, 'grande' (Campbell, 1983."

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topónimo Pa Maka' PA_MAKA
pamaca
Pa Maka'

Recinos (2012: 178fn34) define "Panacá, hoy Zacualpa" como un "pueblo del departamento del Quiché." Colop (2008: 200fn342) apunta que Pa Maka' significa "literalmente 'donde se recoge agua'", no obstante "es lo que actualmente se conoce como el antiguo sitio dond se ubicó Zacualpa, a dos kilómetros al sureste del actual pueblo," así citando a Dennis Tedlock (1996: 357).

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topónimo Chuwila CHUWILA
chuuila
Chuwila

Christenson (2007: 277-278fn277) notes that Chuwi' La, literally "Above the Stinging Nettle," is "the site of the modern town of Chichicastenango, which at the time of the Spanish conquest was a Quiché community (as it still is today). The original Quiché version of the Popol Vuh manuscript was discovered here by Francisco Ximénez."

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persona K'oqawib KOQAWIB
qocavib chic
K'oqawib

Son of Balam Ki'tze', the founder of the Kaweq lineage. Translators interpret the members of the second generation in different ways.

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persona Ajaw Q'alel (Don Pedro de Robles) (gen. 12) AJAW_QALEL_NJDOCE

Ajaw Q'alel (Don Pedro de Robles)

Twelfth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Duodécima generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona K'otuja (gen. 5) KOTUJA_NJCINCO

K'otuja

Fifth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Quinta generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona K'otz'ibaja (gen. 3) KOTZIBAJA_NJTRES

K'otz'ibaja

Third generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Tercera generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona K'ochajuj (gen. 3) KOCHAJUJ_NJTRES

K'ochajuj

Third generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Tercera generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona K'o'akul (gen. 2) KOAKUL_NJDOS

K'o'akul

Second generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Segunda generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona Don Juan Cortés (gen. 14) DON_JUAN_CORTES_KQCATORCE

Don Juan Cortés

Fourteenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Decimocuarta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Don Juan de Rojas (gen. 14) DON_JUAN_DE_ROJAS_KQCATORCE

Don Juan de Rojas

Fourteenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Decimocuarta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Tepepul (gen. 13) TEPEPUL_KQTRECE

Tepepul

Thirteenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Treceava generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Tekum (gen. 13) TEKUM_KQTRECE

Tekum

Thirteenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Treceava generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Belejeb Tz'i' (gen. 12) BELEJEB_TZI_KQDOCE

Belejeb Tz'i'

Twelfth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Duodécima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Oxib Kej (gen. 12) OXIB_KEJ_KQDOCE

Oxib Kej

Twelfth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Duodécima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona K'ikab (gen. 10) KIKAB_KQDIEZ

K'ikab

Tenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Décima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Tepepul (gen. 9) TEPEPUL_KQNUEVE

Tepepul

Ninth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Novena generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Istayul (gen. 8) ISTAYUL_KQOCHO

Istayul

Eighth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Octava generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Tepepul (gen. 8) TEPEPUL_KQOCHO

Tepepul

Eighth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Octava generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Istayul (gen. 6) ISTAYUL_KQSEIS

Istayul

Sixth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Sexta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona K'otuja (gen. 5) KOTUJA_KQCINCO

K'otuja

Fifth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Quinta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Istayul (gen. 4) ISTAYUL_KQCUATRO

Istayul

Fourth generation of the Kaweq linage.

Cuarta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona K'oqawib (gen. 2) KOQAWIB_KQDOS

K'oqawib

Second generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Segunda generación del linaje Kaweq.

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grupo de deidades Mensajeros de Xibalba MENSAJEROS_DE_XIBALBA
vzamahel Xibalba
Mensajeros de Xibalba

The messengers of Xibalba, or “vzamahel Xibalba” are a group of four owls, each with distinct, surreal features. The text introduces them when the Lords of Xibalba first summon Jun Junajpu and Wuqub’ Junajpu to play with them in Xibalba, and they serve the Lords of Xibalba several times in the text thereafter. According to Ximénez, the messengers are named “chabi tucur” or “saeta tecolote”; “huracan tucur” or “tecolote de vna pierna”; “caquix tucur” or “guacamaya tecolote”; and “holom tucur” or “tecolotecabeza” (13v).

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topónimo Ch'abi Q'aq' CHABI_QAQ
cabicac
Ch'abi Q'aq'

Ch'abi Q'aq' is listed, together with Chi Junajpu', as one of the many communities conquered by Don Francisco Iskin Nija'ib', as recorded in Utitulo rajawarem ajaw Don Francisco Iskin Nija’ib’.  Matsumoto (2017:189 n 136) notes that "Edmonson (1965:19) defines Ajch’ab’iq’aq’, Chi Junajpu as a compound toponym referring to a single settlement (compare Ghabicoh Junahpu in Alvarez Arévalo 1987:40), but Recinos (1957:72n16) identifies it as a reference to the two volcanoes now known as Fuego and Agua, both in the Department of Sacatepéquez.

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topónimo Chitemaj CHITEMAJ
chi temah
Chitemaj

(Chi) Temaj also appears in front of Wajxaqlajuj in a list of communities conquered by Don Francisco Iskin Nija'ib' as recorded in Utitulo rajawarem ajaw Don Francisco Iskin Nija’ib’.  In this context, Matsumoto (2017:188 n 128) notes that "Basseta (2005:497) defines tem as “beam, plant, and seat” and Temah as ‘tomar assiento’ (to take a seat), and Coto (1983 [1656]:304) notes that the phrase tin tzal temah is “composed of tzalan, something tilted, and tem, which is a beam” (compare “Plank Place” in Tedlock 1996:189).

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linaje Nija'ib' NIJAIB
nihaibab
Nija'ib'

The Nija'ib' lineage of the K'iche' are the protagonists in at least six known land titles or títulos, which have been published in various forms and combinations by Recinos (1957), Carmack (1973, 2009), Crespo Morales (1968),  Alvarez Arévalo (1987), Ochoa Garcia (2016), and Matsumoto (2017). The latter publication provides the most comprehensive bibliography, ethnohistorical context, and linguistic analysis to date for five of these documents.

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grupo de deidades Jun Kame and Wuqub' Kame JUN_KAME_WUQUB_KAME
hun came, vvqub came
Jun Kame, Wuqub' Kame

Jun Kame (One Death) and Wuqub’ Kame (Seven Death) are the principal deities of the realm of Xibalba. Their names represent the K’iche’ calendar dates of Kame, a day generally associated with the word for death (kämikal). They are first introduced in Popol Wuj when they are disturbed by the ball playing of Jun Junajpu and Wuqub’ Junajpu. Their most important moment in the text is arguably their defeat by the Hero Twins Junajpu and Xb’alanke, marking the end of their powerful rule over the existing world.

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grupo de deidades Ixtaj and Ixpuch' XTAJ_XPUCH
xtah, xpuch
Xtaj, Xpuch

When the first four K’iche’ men, Balam K’itze’, Balam Aq’ab, Majuk’utaj and Ik’ibalam, begin their sacrificial killings to the gods Tojil, Awilix, and Jakawitz, the enemies of the K’iche’ plan to defeat the K’iche’ and thus avenge the deaths of their people. Their plan involves sending two of their best maidens, Xtaj and Xpuch’, who will wash their clothes in the river where the gods are, and thus offer themselves and their bodies to the gods.

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grupo de deidades Goddesses of the Milpa GUARDIANES_DE_COMIDA
chahal echa
Chajal echa'

Lady Blood [Ixkik’] (brackets inserted to provide modern naming according to K’iche’ linguist Sam Colop) is the daughter of the lord of Xibalba Gathered Blood [Kuchuma Kik’]. She becomes impregnated by the skull of One Junajpu [Jun Junajpu] in the ballcourt where he and his brother Seven Junajpu [Wuqub’ Junajpu] lost to the Lords of Xibalba. As a result of this pregnancy, she escapes Xibalba to avoid facing sacrifice by the Lords.

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evento Junajpu Mico JUNAJPU_MICO
hun ahpu coy
Junajpu mico

Once the Hero Twins transform their elder brothers One Monkey (Junb’atz’) and One Artisan (Junchuwen), into spider monkeys, they test their grandmother’s ability to avoid laughing at the Artisan Brothers. They conduct this test through “Hunahpu Spider Monkey,” a song played with the flute and the drum.

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topónimo Ch'ab'iq'aq' CHABI_QAQ
cabicac
Ch'abi Q'aq'

"Edmonson (1965:19) defines Ch’ab’iq’aq’, Chi Junajpu as a compound toponym referring to a single settlement (compare Ghabicoh Junahpu in Alvarez Arévalo 1987:40), but Recinos (1957:72n16) identifies it as a reference to the two volcanoes now known as Fuego and Agua, both in the Department of Sacatepéquez. Carmack (2001:233, 239) also describes both Chab’iq’aq’ ‘fire arrows’ (or Tz’apiq’aq’ ‘closed fire’) and Chwi Junajpu as Nima K’iche’ calpuls. Tedlock (1996:189) translates these designations as 'Meteor, Hunahpu Place'" (Matsumoto 2017:189n136).

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topónimo Xajb’akej XAJBAKYEJ
xahbaquieh
Xajbakyej

Recinos (1957:72n7) suggests that this place corresponds to the village Sajbaquiej in the municipality of Chichicastenango. Carmack (2001:233–34) characterizes it as a Nima K’iche’ calpul and translates its name as ‘deer bath’. In contrast, Tedlock (1996:189) translates the toponym “Deer Dance Plaza,” presumably interpreting xajb’a as an apocopated form of xajb’al, lit. 'place for dancing'. This designation also appears in a list of K’iche’ patrol groups elsewhere in the Popol Wuj (see Christenson 2003a:line 8094).

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topónimo Tz'oloj Che' TZOLOJ_CHE
tzolohche
Tz'oloj Che'

"This is the K’iche’ name for the town in Totonicapán known today by its Spanish-Nahuatl name, Santa María Chiquimula (Carmack 1981:307; Edmonson 1965:28). It was the pre-Conquest political

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lugar palow PALOW
palo
palow

placeholder (Maxwell and Hill 2006: 35-39)

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linaje Lamakib LAMAKIB

Lamakib'

One of the thirteen allied lineages.

Christenson (p. 204, note 514): “The Lamacs, like the Cumatz with whom they are paired in this passage, apparently settled the area of present-day Sacapulas (Recinos 1950, 171 n. 6; Fox 1978, 76). There is a site known as Lamak-Zacapulas approximately five leagues north of Sacapulas (Villacorta and Villacorta 1930, 94; Fox 1978, 90)."

Tedlock (p. 346) adds that the Lamakib’ were resettled to Sacapulas during the colonial period.

 

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persona Donadiu DONADIU
Donadiu

Según apunta Sam Colop (nota 390, página 259): "Tonatiuh conforme al diccionario de Karttunen (1992) quiere decir 'el Sol' y nos refiere a tóna que quiere decir 'hacer calor o Sol'. Probablemente, el sobrenombre de Pedro de Alvarado no se refiera al color de su cabello, como tradicionalmente se ha dicho, sino a su práctica de 'quemar' a sus víctimas".

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grupo de deidades Hombres de maíz HOMBRES_DE_MAIZ

nuestras primeras madres y padres / las primeras gentes creadas y formadas

The importance of maize to Mayan cultures is well represented in the Popol Wuj. Below we provide insights from other primary and secondary sources so that readers may appreciate the profound technological and sociohistorical implications of maize cultivation in daily life and spiritual paths, including the creation of the first human beings -- "las primeras gentes creadas y formadas," Balam Ki'tze', Balam Aq'ab, Majuk'utaj, e Ik'i Balam (Colop 2011: 130).

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topónimo Q'umaraq Aj QUMARAQ_AJ
cumarca ah
Gumarcaah

Christenson (2007: note 732, page 251) translates the name of the settlement Q'umarkaj as "Ancient/Rotten Canes/Reeds." He explains: "The name of this citadel has generally been translated 'Place of Rotten Canes' (Recinos 1950, 215, D. Tedlock 1996, 183). Q'umarik, however, also refers to something ancient, while aj can be used for a wide variety of reeds. The more likely translation of the citadel is thus 'Place of Ancient Reeds.' This ties the city figuratively with the ancient place of their origin at Tulan (Place of Reeds).

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herramienta Ka' KA

Ka'

http://research.mayavase.com/kerrmaya_hires.php?vase=1272

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objeto Ub'aqib'al q'aq' BAQ_QAQ

Ub'aqib'al q'aq'
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objeto Su' SU

Su'
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herramienta Mixk'ina' MIXKINA

Mixk'ina'

The centrality of maiz cultivation in Mesoamerica is well-documented in the Popol Wuj. Below we provide background information on some of the key tools and technologies used in Maya agriculture.

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herramienta Kaj KAJ

Kaj

As is apparent from manifold sources beyond the Popol Wuj itself, agriculture, especially of corn, is extremely important to Maya culture.  Instruments used to plant gardens include the axe (kaj) used to make a clearing and the hoe (mixk'ina') used for tilling the earth. When the Hero Twins are tasked with planting, their magic causes these tools to do their work for them, while they enjoy blowgun hunting .

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objeto Wach Sot WACH_SOT

Wach Sot

Christenson (2007: 106; 2004: 66) translates the term as "headdresses," one of the five fine objects that adorn the Hero Twins as they journey to Xibalba. The others are leather, yokes, arm protectors, and face bands.

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objeto Yachwach YACHWACH

Yachwach

Feather headbands

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herramienta Wub' WUB

Perhaps the most omnipresent of technologies in the Popol Wuj, the blowgun – wub’ – plays a significant role in the tale.  At nearly every turn in the Hero Twins’ story, blowguns have a central part in the events, or it is at least noted that they would go “with their blowguns over their shoulders” (ki wub' xkitelej).

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objeto Pach' q'ab' PACH_QAB

Pach' q'ab'

Christenson (2007: note 245, page 106) notes that "Depictions of Precolumbian ballplayers in ancient Maya art often show the lower arms wrapped with
a protective device." Image #1209 above, "Ball game inside ball-court," from Justin Kerr's database of Maya vases, offers one such example.

Arm protectors are one of the five fine objects that adorn the Hero Twins as they journey to Xibalba.

The others are leather, yokes, feather headdresses, and face bands.

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objeto Tz'u'm TZUM

Tz'u'm

As Allen Christenson (2007: 106) explains, athletic prowess is symbolically passed down to the Hero Twins from their fathers through the physical objects used to play the ballgame (kik'): yokes (b'ate), kilts or hides (tz’u’m), armguards (pach' q'ab'), panaches of feather (yachwach), headbands (wach sot), and the ball itself (kik’ or cha’j). These are collectively called their “implements” (chokonisan) or “equipment” (etz’ab’al)

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objeto B'ate BATE

B'ate

Christenson (2007: note 244, pages 105-106) rightly points out the difficulty of documenting this object in alphabetic sources. He writes: "Unfortunately b'ate does not appear in any early colonial dictionaries, perhaps because the ballgame ceased to be played soon after the Spanish conquest. Thus the names for the equipment used in the game fell out of usage. From the description found later in the Popol Vuh text, the ball bounces off of this article in the process of playing the game.

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objeto Cha'j CHAJ

Cha'j

Tedlock points out that cha’j is used for the game ball in Xib’alb’a while kik’ -- which also means "blood" or "resin" --  refers only to the ball of Juajpu and Xb’alanke.  

Perhaps this wordplay solidifies a semantic connection for the Maya, allowing kik to refer to balls and, more distantly, to humans’ interaction with the supernatural through sacrifice or ball game challenges.

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objeto Kik' KIK
quic
Kik'

The Mesoamerican ball game famously provides the central mode of conflict between Xib’alb’a and the two sets of brothers in the Popl Wuj. Although the exact rules and purpose of the game are unknown, it is clear that it held significance far beyond that of a simply recreational activity.

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topónimo Kawinal KAWINAL
cavinal
Kawinal

One of the four divisions of the citadel of Chi K'ix.

Colop (página 189, nota 316) dice, "es propiamente el nombre de aquel sitio arqueológico [donde probablemente ubicaba Chi K'ix] y puede leerse como ka- 'dos' y winal cognado yukateko del k'iche' winaq 'persona', equivale a '2 cuentas de 20,' es decir, 'cuarenta.'"

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topónimo K'ulba KULBA
culba
K'ulba

One of the four divisions of the citadel of Chi K'ix

Colop (página 189, nota 316) dice que este nombre viene de k'ulba't, traduciéndolo como "monjón" o "límite."

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topónimo Jumeta Ja JUMETA_JA
humetaha
Jumeta Ja

One of the four divisions of the citadel of Chi K'ix.

Colop (página 189, nota 316) lo traduce como "corteza del río," pero añade que se puede leerlo también como "casa de corteza de árbol."

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topónimo Chi Chaq' CHI_CHAQ
chiq chac

One of the four divisions of the citadel of Chi K'ix. 

Colop (página 189, nota 316) ofrece dos posibilidades para su traducción: "lugar seco" y "lugar mojado, en referencia directa a alguno de los sitios ubicados a la orilla del río que atraviesa el lugar."

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topónimo Chi K'ix CHI_KIX
chiquix
Chi K'ix

The citadel founded by the sons of the forefathers after abandoning Jaqawitz. 

Colop (página 189, nota 314) traduce el nombre como "lugar de las espinas." Cita a Alain Ichon, diciendo, "sería el sitio Kawinal ubicado en ambas márgenes de río Blanco a unos 3 kilómetros antes de confluir con el río Negro o Chixoy, en jurisdicción de Cubulco, Baja Verapaz."

También según Colop (página 189, nota 315) la ciudadela se dividía en cuatro secciones o "montañas," enumeradas más adelante. 

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topónimo México MEXICO
Mexico
México

Carmack (1981, p. 44) suggests that the Popol Vuh describes the journey of the K'iche' forefathers from a Chontal-speaking epi-Toltec center on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, probably in the modern-day Mexican states of Veracruz or Tabasco.

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topónimo Medicina de Tojil MEDICINA_DE_TOJIL
cunabal tohil
Medicina de Tojil

A hidden canyon (ewab'al siwan) beneath the mountain Pa Tojil. Given the name "Medicine of Tojil" by the forefathers.

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topónimo Arenas arrancadas ARENAS_ARRANCADAS
bocotahinac zanaieb
Arenas arrancadas

One of two names for what may be one or two places along the K'iche' forefathers' path across the sea from Tulan to the highlands. 

Colop (página 151, nota 243) explica que "este 'pasaron del mar' no debe tomarse de manera literal. Es una figura para explicar el paso entre determinados lugares que se anegan en la época de la lluvia, o como dice Tedlock (301), 'en efecto, los nombres describen una calzada como las que cruzan lagos o áreas temporalmente inundadas para conectar varios sitios Mayas de las tierras bajas.'

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topónimo Piedras en hilera PIEDRAS_EN_HILERA
cholochic abah
Piedras en hilera

One of two names for what may be one or two places along the K'iche' forefathers' path across the sea from Tulan to the highlands. 

Colop (página 151, nota 243) explica que "este 'pasaron del mar' no debe tomarse de manera literal. Es una figura para explicar el paso entre determinados lugares que se anegan en la época de la lluvia, o como dice Tedlock (301), 'en efecto, los nombres describen una calzada como las que cruzan lagos o áreas temporalmente inundadas para conectar varios sitios Mayas de las tierras bajas.'

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topónimo Ik'oq'ij IKOQIJ
icoquih
Ik'oq'ij

This astronym probably refers to Venus, the morning star and an important entity in Mesoamerican cosmology. 

As Christenson (2007: 205) points out, K'iche' people, like central Mexican intellectuals and other Maya communities, were well-known as astrologers and observers of the constelations. They connected their observations of the cosmos to the practices of daily life, and used micro- and macrological correspondences to create order and balance in a chaotic world.

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persona Echave ECHAVE

The Newberry Library catalog record for the Ximénez manuscript describes Escolio 5 verso as “an apostrophe praising the Dominican Order, dated Aug. 14, 1734 and signed ‘Echave’.” According to Ruud van Akkeren, “El mencionado Echave es fray Ignacio de Echave. Aparece por primera vez el 20 de julio 1732 y por última vez el 4 de diciembre 1735.”

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persona Saint Thomas Aquinas AQUINAS

Saint Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican friar, theologian, and philosopher who was the most prominent thinker in scholasticism and the father of the Thomist tradition.

Santo Tomás de Aquino era un fraile dominicano, teólogo, y filósofo quien era el escolástico más prominente y el padre de la tradición tomista.

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persona San Vicente Ferrer FERRER

Vincent Ferrer (1350–1419) was a Dominican priest and canonized saint.

Vicente Ferrer (1350–1419) era un fraile dominico y un santo canonizado.

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persona Domingo DOMINGO

Saint Dominic (1170–1221) was the founder of the Order of Preachers.

Santo Domingo (1170–1221) era el fundador del Orden de Predicadores.

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deidad Ch'amiyajolom CHAMIYAJOLOM
chamiaholom

Jolom means “head” and “skull” (Christenson 2007: note 631, page 233). Christenson translates the name Ch'amiyajolom as "Skull Staff," because "As emblems of office, Quiché political and religious leaders carry staffs that are often topped with ornate silver cavings symbolizing divine power" (note 237, page 116).

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deidad Kuchuma Kik' KUCHUMA_KIK
cuchumaquic

Christenson (2007: note 235, page 103) explains the name of this god as: "Kuchuma Kik' (Gathered Blood) is still known by Quiché storytellers as a cruel lord of the underworld who gathers blood shed upon the ground as a result of injury, illness, or violence. This blood is then served to his fellow lords at a banquet."

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animal vac PAJARO
vac

Christenson (2007: 45) uses the name of this bird, vac, as an example of K'iche' linguistic features: "Long and short vowels are treated as separate letters in Quiché and should be distinguished when written. The Ximénez transcription of the Popol Vuh seldom makes such distinctions. For example, the word transcribed as vach might be read with a long vowel vach ('my companion'), or with a short vowel väch ('my face')."

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deidad Ch'amiyabaq CHAMIYABAQ
chamia bac

Christenson (2004: line 3666) spells the name of the god, Ch'ami'ya B'aq, and translates the meaning as "Staff Bone." In his prose translation (2007: note 226, page 101), he adds, "Xbaquiyalo. The likely etymology of this name is x- (lady), baqi (bone), ya' (water/river), lo (perhaps), yielding Lady Bone Water. Tedlock notes that in Yucatec, bak ha' (also “bone water”) is the snowy egret or snowy heron, and thus translates the name as “Egret Woman” (D. Tedlock 1996, 250 n. 91)."

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topónimo Rabinal RABINAL
rabinal
Rabinal

Rabinal refers both to the Achí ("man"), a group related to the K'iche' and to their town, which remains to this day.

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persona Fray Alonso de Noreña NORENA

Fray Alonso de Noreña, O.P. was the provincial superior (or prior provincial) of Guatemala. His most significant work was a collaboration with Augustinian friar Alonso de Vera Cruz on the practices of various mendicant orders in Spanish America.

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persona Alonso de la Peña Montenegro MONTENEGRO

Alonso de la Peña Montenegro was bishop of Quito from 1653–1687, to whom was attributed the Itinerario para parochos de indios, en que se tratan las materias más particulares, tocantes a ellos, para su buena administración.

According to William B. Taylor,

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persona Fray Domingo de Vico VICO

Fray Domingo de Vico, O.P. (d. 1555) was a Dominican friar who was assigned to work with Fray Bartolomé de las Casas to enforce the reformatory New Laws of 1542. De Vico wrote three works that were influential for Ximénez: Theologia Indorum (Theology of the Indians); a treatise on evangelization in Guatemala called Tratado de ídolos (Treatment of Idols), and a dictionary of the Kaqchikel language.

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persona Su Majestad SU_MAJESTAD

Though "His Majesty" ("Su Majestad") is a general title for the Spanish king, Ximénez's references to "sus leyes de índías" (escolio 3 recto, line 27) make this most likely a reference to Charles II of Spain, whose 1680 compendium of the Laws of the Indies was the most prominent edition. When Ximénez was compiling this manuscript (1701–1702), Charles II had only just abdicated to Philip V, and the transition was a long enough process (both politically and in terms of transatlantic news dissemination) that the reference is somewhat ambiguous.

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persona Fray Juan de San José FRAY_JUAN_DE_SAN_JOSE

Fray Juan de San José seems to have been one of Ximénez's mentors in Guatemala. Amid this discussion of how to handle the possible demonic dangers in K'iche' celebrations, Ximénez mentions his advise: "me lo aconsejo así un Relígíoso docto, y de exemplar vída, q'auía gastado muchos aS. admínístrando índíos q'murío ya decrepíto llamado el R. Pe. fr. Juo.-de S. Joseph demí sagrado hauíto."

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persona Antonio de Remesal REMESAL

Fray Antonio de Remesal, O.P. (1570–1619) era un fraile dominico y cronista de Centroamérica. Escribió una historia de la provincia de Chiapas y Guatemala en 1619 citada por Ximénez en sus Escolios.

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persona Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda SEPULVEDA

Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (1494–1573) was a theologian and philosopher. He famously debated Bartolomé de las Casas at Valladolid, defending the enslavement of indigenous peoples.

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persona Bartolomé de las Casas LAS_CASAS

Fray Bartolomé de las Casas, O.P. (1474 or 1484–1566) was a Dominican friar. A former encomendero, he eventually opposed the system of forced labor in which he had participated. His works, including his famous Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, denounced the treatment of indigenous peoples by European colonizers. After a failed attempt at the "peaceful colonization" of Venezuela, he entered the Dominican Order, returning to the Americas as a priest and eventually bishop among the Maya in Guatemala.

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persona Apóstol Santiago SANTIAGO

Saint James the Greater, so called as to distinguish him from the other apostle named Saint James, was an apostle of Jesus. According to tradition, he went on mission to what is now Spain, where he is now buried at Santiago de Compostela in Galicia.

Santiago el Mayor, llamado así para distinguirse del otro apóstol que se llama Santiago, era un apóstol de Jesucristo. Según la tradición, era misionero en lo que ahora es España, donde está enterrado en Santiago de Compostela en Galicia.

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deidad Jun Tijax JUN_TIJAX
huntíhax

According to Ruud van Akkeren, "Jun Tijax," or "One Flintknife," is a name of the god Tojil. He characterizes Tojil as "essentially a god of sacrifice" who "may appear as a sacrificial knife." According to Ximénez, he had been equated with Saint Paul the Apostle.

Citing Ximénez, Ruud van Akkeren attributes this equivalence to the figures' similar iconography: "The Toj of Rab’inal chose San Pablo as their new patron saint because he carried a sword in his hand, which is confirmed by Ximénez who writes that San Pablo was known as Jun Tijax."

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persona San Juan Bautista SAN_JUAN_BAUTISTA

Saint John the Baptist was a prophet and a preacher, and the cousin of Jesus Christ.

San Juan Bautista era un profeta y un predicador, y el primo de Jesucristo.

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deidad Xōchiquetzal XOCHIQUETZAL

The Nahua goddess Xōchiquetzal was the mother of Quetzalcoatl. Ximénez equates Xōchiquetzal with the Maya goddess Ixkik'. He further states that his predecessors had, in his view, erroneously equated both goddesses with the Christian figure of Mary, the mother of God.

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lugar Guatemala GUATEMALA

The "Kingdom of Guatemala" (which Ximénez refers to as "Reyno de Gualta.") was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, officially established in 1609.

El "Reino de Guatemala" (que Ximénez escribe como "Reyno de Gualta.") era una división administrativa del Imperio Español, oficialmente establecido en 1609.

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persona María MARIA

Mary, whom Ximénez refers to as "SSma." (Santíssima, Most Holy) or "Ma. SSma." (Madre Santíssima, Most Holy Mother), is the human mother of Jesus Christ. She is also known as the "Blessed Virgin Mary," having conceived Jesus of the Holy Spirit.

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deidad Satanás SATANAS

In Catholicism, Satan is a being who tempts humans to sin against God. As a demon, he is characterized as an angel (that is, an entirely spiritual, not physical, creature) who rebelled against God. Ximénez refers to him interchangeably as "la bestia infernal," "Satanas," and most frequently, "el demonío."

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persona San Pablo SAN_PABLO

Saint Paul the Apostle was an apostle of Christ in first-century Asia Minor and Europe. Of the 27 books of the New Testament, 14 are attributed to him.

San Pablo el Apóstol era un apóstol de Cristo en Asia Menor y Europa en el primer siglo. De los 27 libros en el Nuevo Testamento, se atribuyen 14 a él.

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deidad Espíritu Santo ESPIRITU_SANTO

Ximénez refers to the Holy Spirit as "el espíritu Sto.," "el espíritu de Díos" or "la tercera persona de la Santísima Trinidad." The Holy Spirit is characterized as the creative force of God in the biblical text of Genesis, which Ximénez compares to the creation account that begins the Popol Vuh.

In Christianity, the Holy Spirit is the third Person of the Trinity. The Catholic statement of faith, or Nicene Creed, says of the Holy Spirit:

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deidad Jesucristo JESUCRISTO

Ximénez uses the abbreviation "Xpto." for "Cristo" or "Christ," originating in the Greek word "Χριστός" ("Christós").

In Christianity, Jesus Christ is the son of God and redeemer of humanity. The Catholic statement of belief professed by this text's author, Francisco Ximénez, reads:

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deidad Dios DIOS

God is the sole deity in Christian theology (among others), in which he consists in a Trinity of three Persons: Father, Son (or Jesus Christ), and Holy Spirit.

The compiler of the Popol Vuh manuscript, Fray Francisco Ximénez, was a Catholic priest. Catholic beliefs on God are summarized in the religion's statement of faith, also known as the Credo or Nicene Creed.

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persona Carlos V CARLOS_V

Charles V (1500–1558) was the ruler of the Spanish Empire from 1516–1556, the Holy Roman Empire from 1519–1556, and the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506–1555.

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topónimo La isla española LA_ISLA_ESPANOLA

"La isla española" (the Spanish island), today known as Hispaniola (its Latin name), is a Caribbean island shared by the nations of Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

"La isla española," hoy conocido como La Española (en castellano) o Hispaniola (en latín), es una isla caribeña compartida por las naciones de Haití y la República Dominicana.

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persona Pedro Apiano PEDRO_APIANO

Petrus Apianus, o Pedro Apiano (1495–1552), citado por Ximénez como el "cosmógrafo de el emperador Carlos quinto," era un cartógrafo y matemático alemán. Apianus dedicó su obra maestra, Astronomicum Caesareum, al emperador. Ximénez hace referencia a su Liber cosmographicus, mejor conocido como Cosmographia de Petrus Apianus, que se publicó en 1524 y pasó por muchas ediciones en los siglos siguientes.

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linaje Orden de Predicadores ORDEN_DE_PREDICADORES

The Order of Preachers (also known as the Dominican Order, and whose members are commonly called Dominicans or dominicos) is a Catholic religious order founded by Santo Domingo de Guzmán during the Albigensian Crusade and approved by Pope Honorius III in 1216. The order's charism, or main focus, historically centers around intellectual and educational activity in support of orthodox Catholic teaching.

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lugar Chichicastenango CHICHICASTENANGO

Santo Tomás Chichicastenango, known today simply as Chichicastenango, is a town in the Guatemalan highlands. Fray Francisco Ximénez was a parish priest in Chichicastenango when he compiled the manuscript of the Popol Vuh presented here in 1701 and 1702. Then as now, the population of Chichicastenango is majority K'iche'.

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persona R.P.F. (Reverendo Padre Fray) Francisco Ximénez XIMENEZ
R.P.F. FRANZÍSCO XIMENEZ

Fray Francisco Ximénez, O.P. was a Dominican friar born in Écija, Spain in 1666. He is the author of the manuscript known as Ayer MS 1515, housed at the Newberry Library in Chicago. MS 1515 includes the text presented here, "Empiezan las historias del origen de los índíos de esta provinçia de Gvatemala tradvcido de la lengva qviche en la castellana para mas commodidad de los mínístros de el Sto. Evangelío," or the Popol Vuh, and its attendant "Escolios." Ximénez compiled the work in 1701 and 1702 during his time as a parish priest in Santo Tomás Chichicastenango.

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topónimo Río de Podre AGUA_PODRIDA
puch chi a
agua podrida

A river of pus crossed by Hun Hunahpu and Vucub Hunahpu appears in all the translated versions, but not in Ximenez's Spanish manuscript (folio 14r). Both Christenson (Literal Poetic, page 72, note 45) and Colop (page 68, note 96) assert that the K'iche' manuscript's puch is a scribal error for puj "pus." This may have caused Ximénez confusion during the translation.

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topónimo Río de Sangre RIO_DE_SANGRE
chiquiquia
río de sangre

Two of the obstacles traversed by travellers into Xib'alb'a were rivers of blood and pus, both of which, the narrative suggests, are deadly to drink. Neither One and Seven Hunahpu nor their children are stopped by them. Christenson (p. 122): "Then they arrived at Blood River. They were able to pass through, because they did not drink from it." Ibid (p. 160): "And again they passed over Pus River and Blood River. In their hearts, the Xibalbans had intended these as traps. But they were not troubled. They just passed over them, floating on their blowguns."

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topónimo River Scorpion JA_SIMAJ
ha zimah
--

The idea of a "river of scorpions" is present in Christenson's and Tedlock's translations, but Ximénez, Colop, and Recinos find other ways of expressing the concept in Spanish. 

Ximénez transcribes the K'iche' as "chupan halhal ha zimah, maui ahílan zimah," which Christenson (Literal Poetic Translation, page 72) renders in modern orthography as "chupan jal ja'l: Ja' Simaj, Mawi ajilan simaj." He translates these words as "Into turbulent rivers: River Scorpion, not counted scorpions."

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topónimo Pléyadas PLEYADAS
motz
Pléyadas

An astronym for the constellation known as the Pleiades in English and in K'iche' as Motz. According to Christenson (page 104, note 198) this word means "to gather together in large numbers." The Popol Vuh states that the Four Hundred boys became this constellation after their defeat by Sipakna, "but perhaps this is merely a fable."

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topónimo Julisnab JULISNAB
huliznab

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. According to Christenson (page 96, note 176), "the identity of this mountain is unknown. Edmondson identifies it with Tajumulco, a volcano in the district of Huehuetenango, Guatemala."

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topónimo Makamob MAKAMOB
macamob
Makamob

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. Christenson (page 96; note 175): "Volcán Zunil in the district of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala."

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topónimo Ya' Xkanul YA_XKANUL
ya xcanul
Ya' Xkanul

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. Christenson (page 96, note 174): "Volcán Santa María, southwest of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala. Xkanul is also a general term for volcano in Quiché."

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topónimo Volcán de Fuego VOLCAN_DE_FUEGO
chicac
volcán de Fuego

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. Christenson (page 96, note 171) translates the name Chigag as "Mouth Fire" (Chi'q'aq'), and says, "a volcano in the district of Sacatepequez, Guatemala, nineteen kilometers southeast of Antigua."

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topónimo Pekul PEKUL
pe cul
el Pekul

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. Christenson (page 96, note 173) identifies it with Volcán Acatenango, but cites Tedlock as identifying it with Volcán de Agua.

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topónimo Volcán de Acatenango VOLCAN_DE_ACATENANGO
hunahpu
volcán de Acatenango

One of the mountains created by Zipacna. From Christenson (page 96, note 172): "Edmondson and Recinos identify this volcano as Volcán de Agua, also located in the district of Sacatepequez, southeast of Antigua. Tedlock identifies it with Volcán de Acatenango, located in the same district. In either case, it must be a volcano located near Chigag as the Annals of the Cakchiquels describes it as 'standing abreast' of Chigag."

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topónimo Tinamit Quiché TINAMIT_KICHE
tinamit quiche
pueblo K'iche'

Christenson (page 59; note 7) says: "based on tinamit, a Nahua-derived word meaning 'fortified town, citadel, or fortification wall' (Campbell, 1983, 85). Although in modern Quiché, "tinamit" simply refers to a town or city, the word is used in the Popol Vuh to specify fortified centers occupied by ruling lineages (Carmack 1981, 23). Here the citadel of the Quiché people is also called Quiché, apparently referring to the heartland region of their nation. This would include the capital city, Cumarcah [Q'umarkaj], as well as its surrounding territory."

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deidad Uk'u'x Ulew UKUX_ULEW
cah vlew
K'u'x Ulew

Ximénez also writes vqux vleu (Folio 2r; Christenson Prose, p. 73).

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topónimo Santa Cruz SANTA_CRUZ
Sta. Cruz

Christenson (2007: note 892, page 287) helpfully glosses the history of the place name and its role in the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica. He writes: "Bishop Francisco Marroquín blessed the ruins of Cumarcah in 1539, renaming it Santa Cruz (Spanish: 'Holy Cross'). In about 1555, the Spaniards founded a new administrative center three miles to the east, which they also named Santa Cruz del Quiché (Spanish: Holy Cross of the Quiché).

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linaje Cuatro Casas Grandes CUATRO_CASAS_GRANDES

The Lords of the Four Great Houses are Ajtzik Winaq Ajaw, Lolmet Ajaw, Nim Ch'okoj Ajaw, and Jaqawitz.

With the three Great Houses that preceed them in the text -- Kaweq, Ajaw K'iche', Nija'ib -- the final section of the Popol Wuj reaffirms the number seven.

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persona Winaq Balam (gen. 9) WINAQ_BALAM_AKNUEVE
Vínacbam
Winaq Balam

Ninth generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: notes 885-886, p. 285) translates Winaq and B'am separately, as "Person" and "Counselor/Doer," preserving K'iche' aesthetics of complementarity and balance.

Novena generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

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persona K'oyabakoj (gen. 8) KOYABAKOJ_AKOCHO
Coyabacoh
K'oyabakoj

Eighth generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 884, p. 285) translates Co Yaba Coh (in colonial orthography), and K'o Yab'a Koj in contemporary K'iche', as "Lord Sick Puma."

Octava generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

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persona K'okamel (gen. 7) KOKAMEL_AKSIETE
Cocamel
K'okamel

Seventh generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 883, page 285) translates K'o Kame'l as "Lord Humble."

Septima generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

Colop (2008: nota 405, página 217) traduce el nombre K'okamel como "honorable mortal", pues k'o significa "honorable" y kamel quiere decir "mortal."

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persona Wuqub Aj (gen. 6) WUQUB_AJ_AKSEIS
Vucubah
Wuqub Aj

Sixth generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 882, p. 285) translates Wuqub' Aj as "Seven Reed/Cane," so-named for the "day in the traditional 260 day calendar."

Sexta generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

Colop (2008: nota 404, página 217) explica que el nombre Wuqub Aj quiere decir el "Día del calendario '7 caña'."

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persona Komajkun (gen. 5) KOMAJKUN_AKCINCO
Comahcun
Komajkun

Fifth generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

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persona K'okosom (gen. 4) KOKOSOM_AKCUATRO
Cocozom
K'okosom

Fourth generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 880, p. 285) points out, "The manuscript reads qo cozom. This is most likely K'o Q'osom (Lord Thicket/Bramble/Chaff) The precise meaning of this name is unclear, however, because of the limitations of the Latin alphabet used. Cozom may also be read as Kosom (Fatigued/Perplexed); K'osom (Reclined); or Qosom (Turkey Ruffling His Wings)."

Cuarta generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

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persona Q'aq' Laqam (gen. 3) QAQ_LAQAM_AKTRES
Caꜫlacan
Q'aq' Laqam

Third generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 879, p. 285): "Kaq' Lakan (Red/Fire Banner)."

Tercera generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche'.

Colop (2008: nota 401, página 217) sugiere que "q'aq' puede ser 'fuego' o kaq, 'rojo.' Laqam 'bandera' conforme Basseta."

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persona Majukutaj Hombre MAJUKUTAJ_HOMBRE
Mahucutah nabe vinac

Christenson (2007: note 479, p. 184) translates the name of the deity, from whom the first grandfather of the K'iche' line takes his name, as "problematic." As he explains, "Carmack believes that it is derived from the lowland Maya word for 'Traveler,' or 'One Who Does Not Stay' (Carmack 1981, 49). Tedlock translates it as 'Not Right Now' based on the Quiché ma, 'not,' and jukotaj, 'right away/in a moment' (Basseta). Akkeren (personal communication) suggests that the name is derived from the Mam jukotaj (elder, eminent one).

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persona Yakolatam YAKOLATAM
Yacolatam

Christenson (2007: 284) translates the name as "Corner of the Reed Mat," noting in his explanation of Yakolatam Utza'm Pop Saqlatol that the name derives from Nahuatl.

Colop (2008: nota 355, página 252) indica que yako significa "levantar" en el idioma maya k'iche'.

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persona Ajaw Awilix AJAW_AWILIX
ahau aulix
Avilix

Christenson (2007: note 552, page 198) translates the name of the deity Awilix, after whom the Lord of the Great House of the Nija'ib is named, as “you are watched over/cared for/commissioned.” He notes: "Throughout the text, the Quichés promise to watch over and care for their gods, providing them with offerings, sustenance, and worship (p. 290; lines 8344-8346, 8379-8388). Tedlock suggests that it may be derived from the Kekchi, kwilix/wilix, “swallow” (the bird) and reads the full name as Lord Swallow (D. Tedlock 1996, 297 n. 152).

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persona Don Pedro de Robles DON_PEDRO_DE_ROBLES
D. Pedro de robles ahau ꜫalel

"Pedro de Robles is known to have taken office soon after 1554, therefore the Popol Vuh must have been written sometime between the years 1554 and 1558" (Christenson 2007: 29, "History of the Popol Vuh Manuscript.")

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persona Don Cristóbal DON_CRISTÓBAL
Don christoual
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persona Ajaw K'otuja (Don Cristóbal) (gen. 11) AJAW_KOTUJA_NJONCE
Ahau cotuha
Ajaw K'otuja (Don Cristóbal)

Eleventh generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

K'o Tuja means "Lord Sweatbath" (Christenson 2007: note 874, p. 283). The 11th Lord of the Nija'ib line draws his name from the 5th and 8th generations.

Undécima generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona Ke'ema (gen. 10) KEEMA_NJDIEZ
queema
Ke'ema

Tenth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

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persona Belejeb Kej (gen. 9) BELEJEB_KEJ_NJNUEVE
Beleheb quih
Belejeb Kej

Ninth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 873, p. 283) signals that the name B'elejeb' Kej or "Nine Deer" is a "day on the traditional 260 day calendar." The name of the 9th Lord of the Nija'ib generation repeats from the 4th.

Novena generación del linaje Nija'ib.

El nombre del noveno señor principal del linaje Nija'ib, Belejeb Kej, quiere decir el día "nueve venado" en el calendario maya, tal como indicaba el nombre del señor de la cuarta generación, el también nombrado Belejeb Kej (Colop 2008: nota 396, página 216).

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persona K'otuja (gen. 8) KOTUJA_NJOCHO
Cotuha
K'otuja

K'o Tuja means "Lord Sweatbath" (Christenson 2007: note 874, p. 283). The name of the 8th Lord of the Nija'ib family line repeats from the 5th generation.

Eighth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Octava generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona Batz'a (gen. 6) BATZA_NJSEIS
Batza
Batz'a

Sixth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

For Christenson (2007: note 875, p. 283), B'atz'a is "Thread/Howler Monkey."

Sexta generación del linaje Nija'ib.

"Batz'a proviene de batz'-ja, 'casa de mono', siendo batz 'mono', un día del calendario maya" (Colop 2008: nota 397, página 216).

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linaje K'otz'ibaja KOTZIBAJA
cotzibaha

Según apunta Sam Colop (2008: nota 395, página 216), ko' señala el estado noble del señor principal de los Nija'ib, mientras la voz k'iche' tz'iba-aj significa "casa de la pintura" o "casa de la escritura".

Allen Christenson (2007: note 872, p. 283) translates K'o Tz'ib'a Ja as "Lord Writing/Painting House."

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linaje K'ochajuj KOCHAJUJ
cochahuh

Christenson (2007: note 871, p. 283) translates K'o Chajuj as "Lord Guardian."

Colop (2008: nota 395, página 216) señala que k'o quiere decir "noble", y que chajuj "probablemente se origina de chaj," término que significa "ocote, pino", o sea "el que enciende."

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linaje K'o'akul KOAKUL
Coacul
K'o'akul

Son of Balam Aq'ab, the founder of the Nija'ib' lineage. Translators interpret the members of the second generation in different ways.

For example, Allen Christenson (2007: 256) identifies only one son of Balam Aq'ab: Co Acutec.

In contrast, Sam Colop (2008: 181) interprets the passage in parallel form, writing "K'o'akul se llamaba el primer hijo, / K'o'akutek le decían al segundo hijo de Balam Aq'ab, de los Nija'ib" (K'o'akul was the name of the first son, /K'a'akutek they said of the second son of Balam Aq'ab, of the Nija'ib people).

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persona Salmanasar SALMANASAR
Salmanasar

"Salmanasar" is the Latin iteration of the name of Shalmaneser V, king of Assyria from 727–722 BC. The second book of Kings details his conquest of the kingdom of Samaria, after which he expelled and deported the population of Israelites later known as the "Ten Lost Tribes" of Israel. Ximénez believed that the K'iche', like other indigenous peoples of the Americas, descended from these tribes. In his Escolios, he writes that the K'iche' "conseruaron algo de el líbro de el genesís, dado q'desçendíesen de las díez tríbus q'en tíempo de Salmanasar, se perdieron".

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topónimo San Anton Ilocab SAN_ANTON_ILOCAB
S Anton ílocab

This is a reference to San Antonio Ilotenango. According to Ruud van Akkeren, "En este pueblo colonial se asentó la rama ilocab [Ilokab'] de los quichés [k'iche's]. Aparentemente, tenían un lienzo que Ximénez pudo estudiar" (218).

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grupo de deidades Hermanos Artesanos HERMANOS_ARTESANOS
hun batz hun chouen
Jun Batz' Jun Chowen

Junb’atz’ y Junchouen son hijos gemelos de Xbaquiyalo y Jun Junajpu, pero son mejor conocidos como los Hermanos Artesanos, destacados por su sabiduría y sus habilidades en varias áreas artesanas (Recinos 1976: 60). Los sabios abuelos les enseñaban "las artes y el trabajo," tal como Sam Colop (2008: 62) traduce la expresión del idioma k'iche' al castellano, incluso las artes bellas (la música, la escritura-pintura) y las artes técnicas (la ofebrería en plata, oro y sagradas piedras preciosas como el jade).

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linaje Dan DAN
Dan

This “pueblo” of Dan is not found in subsequent translations of the Popol Wuj like that of Adrián Recinos or Sam Colop. In addition, the name is not phonetically consistent with toponyms or lineages in K’iche’. While the origin and exact meaning of this reference is unknown, Ximénez cited Dan’s appearance in the Popol Wuj in his other works as a way of supporting his theory on the place of native peoples in Christian salvation history.

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deidad una persona UNA_PERSONA
(Demonium loquens cis)

Christenson (2007: 202) notes that this Latin-language parenthetical aside, which he translates into English as "Demon speaking from here on," represents Ximénez's only explicit commentary in the text.

In his Literal Poetic Translation (2004), Christenson (2004: 192) adds, "This is a singular instance in which Ximénez glosses the text with a brief comment in Latin, referring to the messenger from Xibalba as a demon, or devil. That Ximénez chose to do this only once and in Latin argues for the overall accuracy of the Maya text as he transcribed it."

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persona Kuwatepech (gen. 11) KUWATEPECH_KQONCE
cauatepech
Kuwatepech

Eleventh generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Kuwatepech es el señor principal de la generación undécima del linaje Kaweq; el otro señor principal de esta generación es Wuqub' No'j.

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persona Wuqub No'j (gen. 11) WUQUB_NOJ_KQONCE
Vucub noh
Wuqub No'j

With Kuwatepech, Wuqub' No'j forms the 11th generation of the Kaweq family, part of the K'iche' community. 

Kuwatepech y Wuqub' No'j son los señores undécimos del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Ajaw Lolmet AJAW_LOLMET
ahau lolmet

Según indica Allen Christenson (2004: nota 760, página 257), Ajaw Lolmet significa "Lord Emissary," y así se nombra el segundo señor principal de los K'iche' (Colop 2008: 199).

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persona Ajtzik Winaq AJTZIK_WINAQ
ahtzic vinac

Colop (2008: nota 335, página 251): “El segundo sería el ‘Señor pregonero’ o ‘vocero’, deviniendo su título de Ajtzij Winaq como está en El Título de Totonicapán”.

Christenson (2007: note 759, page 257): "Aj Tzik' Winaq (Herald Person)."

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persona Nima Lolmet Ye'oltux NIMA_LOLMET_YEOLTUX
nima lolmet yeoltux
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persona Yakolatam Utza'm Pop Saqlatol YAKOLATAM_UTZAM_POP_SAQLATOL
yacolatam

Christenson renders the name as "Yacolatam (Corner of the Reed Mat) Zaclatol," noting that Ximénez's use of the name, Yakolatam, U Tza'm Pop Zaklatol represents "a singular instance in the Popol Vuh text where a Nahua language title is supplied with a Quiché translation by the authors. Yakolatam is derived from the Nahua yacatl (point, edge) and tam (leaves). This is followed by a comma in the manuscript, a fairly rare grammatical mark which in this case may indicate a pause for the authors to give a translation of the preceding word into Quiché.

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persona Nim Ch'okoj Nija'ib NIM_CHOKOJ_NIJAIB
nimchocoh nihaibab

Christenson (2007: note 254, p. 256): "Great Steward Nijaibs." In the body of the text, he translates the name as "Great Steward of the Nihaibs."

Colop (2008: nota 355, página 252): "maestro de las ceremonias de los Nija'ib."

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persona Nima K'amja NIMA_KAMJA
nima camha

Colop (2008: nota 355, página 252): señala que el nombre de este señor principal de los Nija'ib quiere decir "principal en línea de sucesión."

Christenson (2007: note 752, p. 256) writes the name Nima K'am Ja as, "Great Reception House."

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persona Q'alel K'amja QALEL_KAMJA
cale camha

Este tercer señor de los Nija'ib tiene un nombre que significa "ministro o capitán", del cual se deduce su importante rol "en función de canciller" (Colop 2008: nota 335, página 251-2).

Christenson (2007: note 760, p. 256): "Q'alel K'am Ja (Magistrate Reception House)."

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persona Ajaw Ajtzik Winaq AJAW_AJTZIK_WINAQ
ahau ahtzic vinac

Christenson (2007: note 750, p. 256): "Ajaw Aj Tzik' Winaq (Lord Herald Person). Aj Tzik' is a “crier, proclaimer, speaker, herald, announcer.”

Por su parte Colop (2008: nota 362, página 255) observa que "el nombre propio del (Ajaw) Q’alel de los Nija’ib era Ke’ema y el del Ajtzik Winaq de los Ajaw K’iche’ era Uchaq’ Iboy."

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persona Ajaw Q'alel AJAW_QALEL
ahau ꜫalel

El primer señor principal de los Nija'ib: "U nab'e ajaw," entendido en inglés como "Lord Magistrate" (Christenson 2007: 301).

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persona Uchuch K'amja UCHUCH_KAMJA
vchuchcamha

Christenson (2007: note 752, p. 256): "U Chuch K'am Ja (Its Mother Reception House)."

Colop (2008: nota 355, página 252) añade que el nombre de esta quinta persona en la línea de sucesión de los Nija'ib significa "asesora" o "consejera de cancillería".

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persona Popol Winaq pa Jom Tzalatz' POPOL_WINAQ_PA_JOM_TZALATZ
popol vinacm pahom tzalatz
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persona Lolmet Kejnay LOLMET_KEJNAY
chituy lolmet queh nay

Allen Christenson (2004: nota 745, página 255) traduce el nombre Lolmet Kej Nay así: "Emissary of the Deer House," pues "Lolmet (or Lolmay) is an emissary or ambassador.' Kej is deer. Na[y] is the Lowland Maya version of the Quichéan Ja[y] (house)."

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persona Popol Winaq chi T'uy POPOL_WINAQ_CHI_TUY
popol vinac
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persona Nim Ch'okoj Kaweq NIM_CHOKOJ_KAWEQ
nim chocoh cavec

Whereas Christenson(2003) identifies the ch'okoj as someone "charged with providing the food and drinks for state functions, as well as making pronouncements and public discourses" (269), Tedlock highlights the potentially political play on words, noting that "ch'okoj" places emphasis on the act of sitting itself, thus suggesting that the Totonicapán authors mockingly refer to him as a "Master of Sitting" rather than a "Master of Ceremonies." 

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persona Ajaw Nim Ch'okoj AJAW_NIM_CHOKOJ
ahau nim chocoh

Allen Christenson (2007: nota 889, página 286), observa que "The Nim Ch'okoj (Great Stewards) of the three principal Quiché lineages identify themselves here as the authors of the “word,” likely the Popol Vuh manuscript itself."

Ajaw Nim Ch'okoj, also written as "Nim Ch'okoj Ajaw," is the third great lord in this tradition, or "el tercer señor" (Colop 2008: 199).

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persona Ajaw Jaqawitz AJAW_JAQAWITZ
ahau hacavitz

Christenson (2007: note 762, page 257) translates "Ajaw Jaqawitz" as "Lord Hacavitz," and notes, "This is likely the priest of the god Hacavitz, the patron deity of the Ahau Quichés."

De los cuatro casas grantes "antes los Ajaw K'iche'," Colop (2008: 199) escribe: "Jaqawitz, el cuarto Señor".

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persona Tekum (gen. 9) TEKUM_KQNUEVE
Tecum
Tekum

Según observa Allen Christenson (2007: nota 849, página 276), el nombre Tekum, "is likely 'enthroned' based on the Nahua tecalli (throne, seat). Tedlock cites a Quiché dictionary compiled by Fermín Joseph Tirado in 1787 which lists tekum as a 'large, black butterfly that flies with great speed' (D. Tedlock 1996, 333 n. 195)."

Ninth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Novena generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Utza'm Achij UTZAM_ACHIJ
vtzam achih

El nombre U Tza'm Achij significa, en inglés, "Their Point Warriors" (Christenson 2007: 285).

Como observa Christenson en su traducción en prosa (2004: 284), "Achij is 'man' but may also refer to 'warriors,' as in this case" (nota 284).

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persona Rajtz'alam Achij RAJTZALAM_ACHIJ
rahtzalam achih
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persona Rajpop Achij RAJPOP_ACHIJ
rahpop achih
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persona Q'alel Achij QALEL_ACHIJ
ꜫalel achih
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persona Nima Ch'okoj NIMA_CHOKOJ
nim chocoh
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persona Achaq' Iboy ACHAQ_IBOY
achac yboy
achaq iboy

According to Christensen (2007: note 807, p266), the name Achaq Iboy, señor principal de los ajaw k'iche', means "Droppings/Backside/Buttocks Armadillo."

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persona Kawisimaj (gen. 7) KAWISIMAJ_KQSIETE
cavizimah
Kawisimaj

Seventh generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Septima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona K'ikab (gen. 7) KIKAB_KQSIETE
quicab
K'ikab

Seventh generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Septima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona K'otuja (gen. 4) KOTUJA_KQCUATRO
cotuha
K'otuja

K'o Tuja means "Lord Sweatbath" (Christenson 2007: note 874, p. 283).

Fourth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Cuarta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Q'ukumatz (gen. 5) QUKUMATZ_KQCINCO
gucumatz
Q'ukumatz

Fifth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Quinta generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Q'alel Saqik QALEL_SAQIK
ꜫalel zaquic
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persona Tz'utuja TZUTUJA
ahau tzutuha
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persona Wajxaqib K'am (gen. 10) WAJXAQIB_KAM_KQDIEZ
Vahxaqui caam
Wajxaqib K'am

Tenth generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Décima generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Ajq'ukumatz AJQUKUMATZ
ah cuꜫumatz

Aj'qukumatz is one part of the priestly group "Aj Tojil, Aj Q'ukumatz," which Allen Christenson (2007: 254fn742) translates as "He of Tojil, He of Cucumatz." As Christenson explains, "These are likely priests of the two major patron deities. Q'ukumatz (Quetzal Serpent) was one of the creator deities."

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persona Balam K'onache' (gen. 3) BALAM_KONACHE_KQTRES
conache
Balam K'onache'

Third generation of the Kaweq lineage.

Tercera generación del linaje Kaweq.

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persona Belejeb Kej (gen. 4) BELEJEB_KEJ_NJCUATRO
beleheb queh
Belejeb Kej

Fourth generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Christenson (2007: note 873, p. 283) signals that the name B'elejeb' Kej or "Nine Deer" is a "day on the traditional 260 day calendar."

Cuarta generación del linaje Nija'ib.

El nombre del cuarto señor del linaje Nija'ib, Belejeb Kej, quiere decir el día "nueve venado" en el calendario maya (Colop 2008: nota 396, página 216).

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persona K'oka'ib KOKAIB
qocaib
K'oka'ib

Son of Balam Ki'tze', the founder of the Kaweq lineage. Translators interpret the members of the second generation in different ways.

For example, Allen Christenson (2007: 256) identifies one son of Balam Ki'tze': "Co Caib was the name of the first, the son of Balam Quitze of the Cavecs." In Christenson's sequence, the next son is Co Acutec, "the name of the som of Balam Acab of the Nihaibs." The third son in the sequence is Co Ahau, "the name of the other, the son of Mahucutah of the Ahau Quichés."

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persona Istayul (gen. 7) ISTAYUL_NJSIETE
íztayul
Istayul

Seventh generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Christenson (2007: 283) writes the name of the 7th Lord of the Nija'ib line as "Iztayul." There is also an Istayul or Iztayul who is the 5th generation of the family line of Balam Ki'tze'.

Septima generación del linaje Nija'ib.

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persona Tepepul (gen. 6) TEPEPUL_KQSEIS
Tepepul
Tepepul

Tepepul first appears in the list of Kaweq K'iche' rulers in his association with Iztayul, in the sixth generation. Subsequent ruling generations share his name: Tepepul (who ascended in 1475) and Iztayub form the eighth generation, and Tukum and Tepepul are the ninth generation.

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persona K'o'akutek (gen. 2) KOAKUTEK_NJDOS
qoacutec
K'o'akutek

Second generation of the Nija'ib lineage.

Ko' quiere decir "noble", así es que el título señala la nobleza y grandeza de esta segunda generación del linaje de los Nija'ib, tal como es el caso de su complemento K'o'akul (Colop 2008: 216).

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persona K'o'ajaw (gen. 2) KOAJAW_AKDOS
qoahau
K'o'ajaw

Second generation of the Ajaw K'iche' lineage. Allen Christenson (2007: 256) renders the name of the son of Majuk'utaj as "Co Ahau."

Segunda generación del linaje Ajaw K'iche', específicamente el hijo de Majuk'utaj. Sam Colop (2008: 181) está de acuerdo con la interpretación etimológica de Dennis Tedlock (1996: 174), quien traduce el nombre "K'o'ajaw" como "Señor noble."

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deidad Nakxit NAKXIT
nacxit

Described as a great lord from the east, Nacxit is responsible for distributing the signs and symbols of lordship (Ximenez Folio 48V).

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persona Ajtojil AJTOJIL
ahtohil

"Aj Tojil, Aj Q'ukumatz (He of Tojil, He of Cucumatz). These are likely priests of the two major patron deities. Q'ukumatz (Quetzal Serpent) was one of the creator deities (see pp. 61, 68-72, 80-82; lines 25, 140-154)" (Christenson 2007: nota 742, página 254).

Colop (2008: nota 334, página 251) clarifica que "Ajtojil, era el cncargado del culto a Tojil; el cuarto en rango es Ajq'ukumatz, encargado del culto a Q'ukumatz, seguido por el Nim Ch'okoj Kaweq, el 'principal de los maestros de ceremonias de los Kaweq'."

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topónimo barranco escondido BARRANCO_ESCONDIDO
evabal zivan

This was the name of Pa Awilix before it was settled by the K'iche' forefathers.

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topónimo Lugar de Awilix LUGAR_DE_AWILIX
pa vlix

"At Awilix." The site where Balam Acab deposited the god(dess) Awilix.

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topónimo Jaqawitz LUGAR_DE_JAQAWITZ
caꜫha hacavitz

The mountain on which Jaqawitz, the god given to Majukutaj, was deposited, and where the K'iche' forefathers constructed their first permanent settlement. This site became the most important early center of the K'iche' kingdom. 

Christenson (page 224, note 585) notes, "Jakawitz in Cholan languages means 'First/Beginning Mountain' tying it to the first mountain of creation. In Quiché, the verb jaq means "to open," which may recall the mountain of Paxil (Split Mountain) that contained the maize used to create the first human beings.

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topónimo Silisib SILISIB
pa zilizib
Silisib'

At this place the K’iche’ people extracted the hearts of their sacrificial victims, who were tricked into “giving the breast,” (Colop (p. 165) has “ofrec[ir] la piel”) a “play on words whereby the nations were tricked into offering to tu’nik (give the breast, suckle, nurture), a metaphor for nurturing or giving sustenance. In reality, however, they were being tricked into offering their own breasts in the form of heart extraction sacrifice” (Christenson, p. 237, note 627).

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topónimo el baño de Tojil EL_BAÑO_DE_TOJIL
ratinibal tohil

A river at which Tojil, Awilix, and Jaqawitz came to bathe in human form.

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linaje Balam Kolob BALAM_KOLOB
balam colob
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linaje Kanchajeleb KANCHAJELEB
canchahe leb
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linaje Balamija' BALAMIJA
balamíja
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linaje Akul Winaq AKUL_WINAQ
acul vinac
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linaje Ajbatenaja AJBATENAJA
ah batenaba

Christenson (2007: note 520, p. 193) translates Aj B'atena Ja as "They of the Ballgame Yoke House."

 

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linaje Ajkibaja AJKIBAJA
ahquibaha
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linaje Ajch'umilaja AJCHUMILAJA
ah chumila
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linaje Uch'abaja UCHABAJA
vchabaha
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linaje Tujal Ja TUJAL_JA
tuhal ha
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linaje Kumatz KUMATZ
cumatz
Kumatz

One of the thirteen allied lineages. Kumatz means “snake” or “serpent” in K’iche’ (see e.g. Q’ukumatz)

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linaje Saqajib SAQAJIB
zacahib
Saqajib'

One of the thirteen allied lineages.

Christenson (p. 204 note 513) derives the name of this lineage from Saq Aj “White Ear of Unripe Maize.”

Tedlock (p. 360) glosses it differently as saq k’ajib’, or “White Cornmeals,” saying “they must have settled in the area of the present town of Salcajá, called Saqk’aja in Quiché.”

Ximénez’s spelling, zacahib, is ambiguous, as his orthography would likely not distinguish between -q- and -qk’-.

 

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linaje Lakamib LAKAMIB
lamaquib
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linaje Ajtz'ikinaja AJTZIKINAJA
ah q,inquina
Ajtz'ikina Ja

Christensen (p. 204, n. 512): "Aj Tz'ikina Ja (They of the Bird House) was the dominant lineage of the people today known oas the Tzutuhils [Tz'utujil], who occupied the land from the southern shores of Lake Atitlán south to the cacao-growing land of the Pacific Coast. Their capital was Chiya' (now called Chutinamit), located on a small hill at the base of San Pedro Volcano just across the bay to the northwest of the modern community of Santiago Atitlán.

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linaje Kaqchikeleb KAQCHIKELEB
caꜫchiqueleb

One of the thirteen allies of the K’iche’s, whose principle lineage was the Sotz’ila Ja, or “Bat House” (Christenson p. 217 n. 566), who stole fire from the K’iche’ forefathers. Their patron god was Chamalkan, interpreted by Tedlock (p. 356) as “Snake Tooth.” 

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linaje Rabinaleb RABINALEB
rabinaleb

One of the thirteen allied lineages, associated with the tinamit of Rab’inal. 

Tedlock (p. 354) identifies the Rab’inaleb’ as “the people known today as Achí [“man” in K’iche’] who speak Achí (a dialect of Quiché) and whose principal town is Rabinal, on the northeast frontier of what was once the Quiché kingdom. They belonged to a group of thirteen allied tribes the Quichés regarded as having come (like themselves) from the east. One of the Rabinal citadels, Spilt Water, was conquered by the Quiché lords duirng the reign of Quicab.”

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linaje Yaki Tepew YAKI_TEPEW
yaquí tepeu
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linaje Tepew Oloman TEPEW_OLOMAN
tepeu, oloman
Tepew Oloman
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linaje Saqkabaja SAQKABAJA
zacabaha
Saqkab'aja

A town, idenfitied by Colop (p. 200, n. 344) as “el actual pueblo de San Andrés Sajcabajá” and the people associated with it.

Saq means “white,” kab’ “sugar” or “honey,” and ja “house.” Thus a possible translation of this name is “white honey house.”

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linaje Kawkeb KAWKEB
caoqueb
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linaje Saqik SAQIK
xuxic qui

Colop (2008: nota 333, página 250) afirma que "El linaje Saqik conforme El Título de Totonicapán vino a sustituir al de Ik'ibalam, que no dejó descendencia. Ese título literalmente dice: 'Señor Sakic Ts'utujá el sustituto de Iquí Balam' (Carmack y Mondlock, 1983: 189). Entre estos dos linajes parece haber una conexión lingüística: saqik puede provenir de saq, 'claro, blanco'; ik', 'luna', 'luna clara', mientras que el nombre de Ik'ibalam, como se dijo en capítulo aparte, significa 'jaguar luna'".

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linaje tres Casas Grandes TRES_CASAS_GRANDES
tres casas grandes

Three family lines represent the Three Great Houses of the Popol Wuj: Kaweq, Ajaw K'iche', Nija'ib.

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linaje Nija'ib NIJAIB
nihaibab
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linaje Ajaw K'iche' AJAW_KICHE
ahau quiche

Christenson (2004, note 110, p. 271) notes, "The manuscript does not include the word 'K'iche'' here, referring to the Ajaw K'iche' lineage, although it is implied from the context."

The Ajaw K'iche' lineage was founded by the fourth -- and final -- deity in the hierarchical sequence, Majuk'utaj. It is the “third-ranking Quiché lineage,” according to Tedlock (1996), who helpfully defined the terms and their shifting places in the text. He writes: “K’iche’, the name of a people, a language, a town, and a kingdom.

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linaje Ajpop K'amja AJPOP_KAMJA
ahpopcam
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linaje Ajpop AJPOP
ahpop
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linaje Q'alel Ajaw QALEL_AJAW
ꜫalelahau
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linaje Kaweq KAWEQ
cavec queche
Kaweq
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linaje Ajpop Xajil AJPOP_XAJIL
ah poxa
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linaje Ajpop Sotz'il AJPOP_SOTZIL
ah pozotzil
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linaje Ilokab ILOKAB
ílocab
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linaje Tamub TAMUB
tamub
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linaje K'ojaj KOJAJ
cohah
K'ojaj
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lugar Tujal Ja_Lugar LUGAR_DE_TUJAL_JA
tuhal ha
Tujal Ja

Christenson (2007, fn516): "The Tujal Ja (Sweatbath House) occupied the area surrounding the modern community of Sacapulas (Recinos 1950, 171 n. 6; Fox 1978, 76). Fox suggests that the settlement of this lineage may be identified with the ruins of Chutinamit, located just across the river and north of present-day Sacapulas, which once controlled the valuable salt springs nearby (Fox 1978, 81). The Tujalhas were conquered by Lord Quicab in the early fifteenth century at the same time as the rest of the Sacapulas Valley (Recinos and Goetz 1953, 93; 1957, 141-143; Carmack 1973, 369-371)."

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topónimo Casa de Jaguares CASA_DE_JAGUARES
balami ha
B'alamija'

Tedlock (page 345) says that this house may be a sign of the Mayan zodiac. He also says, "Jaguar House is also the name of a people belonging to a group of thirteen allied tribes the Quichés regarded as having come (like themselves) from the east."

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topónimo Casa de Hielo CASA_DE_HIELO
xuxulim ha
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topónimo Casa Oscura CASA_OSCURA
quecuma ha

Tedlock (page 341) says this may correspond to a sign of the zodiac.

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topónimo camino amarillo CAMINO_AMARILLO
ꜫana

The yellow path ("camino amarillo" or "ꜫana be," in Ximénez's script, and "q'ana b'e" in modern orthography) is one of the four cosmic routes of the universe ("cahib be"). Along with the red path ("camino rojo" or "ꜫaꜫabe"), black path ("camino negro" or "cahib be"), and white path ("camino blanco" or "zaqui be"), these four routes represent the spiritual pathways and cardinal points of the K'iche' cosmovisión (14r). In Veiled Brightness: A History of Ancient Maya Color, Stephen Houston et al.

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topónimo camino blanco CAMINO_BLANCO
blanco

The white way ("camino blanco" or "zaqui be" in Ximénez's script) is one of the four cosmic routes of the universe ("cahib be"); along with the red path ("camino rojo" or "ꜫaꜫabe"), black path ("camino negro" or "queca be"), and yellow path ("camino amarillo" or "cut eana be"), these routes represent the spiritual pathways and cardinal points of the K'iche' cosmovisión (14r).

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topónimo camino negro CAMINO_NEGRO
uno negro

The black path ("camino negro" or "queca be," in Ximénez's script) is one of the four cosmic routes of the universe ("cahib be"); along with the red path ("camino rojo" or "ꜫaꜫabe"), white path ("camino blanco" or "zaqui be") and yellow path ("camino amarillo" or "cut eana be"), these routes represent the spiritual pathways and cardinal points of the K'iche' cosmovisión (14r).

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topónimo camino rojo CAMINO_ROJO
colorado
Kaq

When the Hero Twins first arrive at the crossroads of Xilbaba, they face four possible paths: the red way, black way, white way, and yellow way.

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topónimo barranco ruidoso BARRANCO_RUIDOSO
cul, cu zivan
K'ulk'u Siwan

Colop (página 67, nota 95) dice que el lugar por donde pasaron Hun Hunahpu y Vucub Hunahpu para llegar a Xibalba estaba "lleno de estacas puntiagudas," y "espinas grandes," para hacer muy difícil el viaje. Los dos barrancos (el barranco agitado y el ruidoso) probablemente representaban obstáculos de acuerdo con sus nombres.

Tedlock (page 355) says "it could be east of San Pedro Carchá, where the Río Cahabón disappears into a system of caves and then emerges again.

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topónimo barranco agitado BARRANCO_AGITADO
fuerte varranca
Nu' Siwan

Colop (página 67, nota 95) dice que el lugar por donde pasaron Hun Hunahpu y Vucub Hunahpu para llegar a Xibalba estaba "lleno de estacas puntiagudas," y "espinas grandes," para hacer muy difícil el viaje. Los dos barrancos (el barranco agitado y el ruidoso) probablemente representaban obstáculos de acuerdo con sus nombres.

Tedlock (page 355) says "it could be east of San Pedro Carchá, where the Río Cahabón disappears into a system of caves and then emerges again."

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topónimo la gran hondonada LA_GRAN_HONDONADA
ním xob carchah
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topónimo Xibalba XIBALBA
xibalba
Xib'alb'a

Christenson (p. 114, note 231): “Xib’alb’a (place of fear) is the Quiché name for the underworld, ruled by lords of death and disease. Modern Quichés still use the word to describe an underground hell inhabited by demons who cause sickness.”

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topónimo Me'awn MEAWN
meauan

Sipakna is crushed under this mountain after being tricked by Hunahpu and Xbalanque. Christenson (page 105, note 202) says of it, "Meauan was identified by Brasseur and Recinos as a mountain west of Rabinal, Guatemala. It is likely the mountain known today as Miagua, located some 20 km. northwest of Rabinal and bordering the Chixoy river. If this identification is correct, Akkeren suggests that that Meauan may be a contracted form of me'al ajaw (daughter lord), the Quiché version of the Kekchi origin of the town's name, Rab'inal (Place of the Lord's Daughter).

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topónimo Casa de Murciélagos CASA_DE_MURCIÉLAGOS
tzotzi ha

Tedlock (page 340) says that this house "possibly correspond[s] to a position on the Mayan zodiac. Bat House is also the name of a lordly Cakchiquel lineage, otherwise known as Macaw House, whose founders stole fire from the Quichés rather than pledge themselves as sacrifice victims."

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topónimo Casa de los Chayes CASA_DE_LOS_CHAYES
chaim ha

As with the other trial houses of Xibalba, Tedlock (page 354) believes that this location may represent a period of the Mayan zodiac.

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topónimo Amaq' Uq'in k'at AMAQ_UQIN_KAT
amac vquin cat
Amaq' Uq'in K'at

The area initially settled by the Ilokab lineage. 

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topónimo Amaq' Tam AMAQ_TAM
amactan

The area settled by the Tamub. Christenson (page 225, note 590) translates: "Amaq' is 'nation,' T'an is 'bald, lacking plumage.' Most likely, however, this is an alternate or archaic spelling for the Tamub lineage. Thus the name of the place is simply 'Nation of the Tamub.' The Tamub lineage has a significant Pokom comonent, and in that language, Tamub may be read simply as 'the descendents' (Akkeren 2000, 125). Carmack identifies this site with a series of ruins known as Cruz Che located along a slope of Telec'uch Mountain west of Hacavitz.

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topónimo Pa Tojil PA_TOJIL
patohil

"At Tojil," the site of Tojil's deposition by Balam Kitze. 

Christenson (page 225, note 588) notes that "[t]his is likely the mountain still known today as Pa Tojil, located on the south side of the Chujuyup Valley (Fox 1978, 58; Carmack 1981, 65)."

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topónimo Chi Pixab CHI_PIXAB
chi pixab

Colop (2008: página 150, nota 241) traduce el nombre "Chi Pixab" como "lugar del consejo." Así es que el nombre resalta uno de los principios y valores mayas, según consta el sabio k'iche' José Yac Noj en su presentación Orientaciones Pedagógicas Salud y Nutrición Raxalaj K’aslemalil. Ukab’Ruk’u’xTijonik (Segundo Básico, ACEM. Maya Na’oj 2012): "Pixab'" significa "tomo consejo, tomar consejo."

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topónimo Nim Xo'l NIM_XOL

A place passed through by the K'iche's on their way to Chi Pixab'. 

Colop traduce el nombre como "Gran Hondonada," y se pone de acuerdo con Tedlock que es otro nombre para Nim Xob Karchaj, en la región del moderno San Pedro Carchá.

In modern K'iche', -xo'l refers to a "space between" in prepositional phrases, e.g. chuxo'l le keb' ja "between the two houses."

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topónimo Suywa SUYWA
zuiva
Suywa

One of the names of the city of Tulán, often referred to as Tulán-Suywa (or Tulan-Zuyua). The name Suywa does not appear on its own.

Tedlock (p. 362): “In Yucatec Maya, the term suyua t’an, ‘twisted (or deceptive) speech,’ refers to riddles whose answers were demanded of pretenders to lordly positions.”

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topónimo Tulán TULÁN
tulan zu

Ximénez describe "tulan zu" (tulan zuiva in the K'ich'e) como el "monte" (huyub), el cual término quizá está relacionado a una prática k'iche'. Historicamente los k'iche' construyen sus fortalezas, las así llamadas tinamit, en las cimas de las montañas. Por su parte el notable académico Sam Colop (página 141, nota 223) identifica Tulan con Tula de Guerrero, hoy día un pequeño pueblo en el noreste del estado Mexicano de Guerrero.

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topónimo K'ayala' KAYALA
cayala
K'ayala'

One of the places (along with Paxil) where maize originates.

Christenson (p. 193, note 455): “K’ayala’ means ‘bitter or stagnant water.’ This is perhaps related to the notion of the primordial waters of creation which the highland Maya often associate with seawater or brackish ponds, out of which the frist mountains emerged. Among modern Quichés, k’alaya’ is the water mixed with lime that women use to add to ground maize dough (Akkeren, personal communication).”

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topónimo Paxil PAXIL
paxíl
Paxil

One of the places (along with K’ayala’) where corn originates.

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topónimo camino verde CAMINO_VERDE
verde

The "green way" is unlike the other four cosmic routes of the universe -- the red way (camino rojo/ꜫaꜫabe, or kaq bej in modern orthograph), black way (camino negro/queca be/q’eq bej), white way (camino blanco/zaqui be/saq bej), and yellow way (camino amarillo/ꜫana be/q’än bej).

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topónimo Pusbal Chaaj PUSBAL_CHAAJ
pucbal chah
Lugar del Sacrificio, Pusbal Chaaj

This toponym is variously translated. Christenson has "Crushing Ballcourt," Tedlock "Place of Ball Game Sacrifice," Colop "Lugar del Sacrificio," and Ximénez "donde echaban la zeniza."

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topónimo lugar del sacrificio LUGAR_DEL_SACRIFICIO
--
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deidad Jun Toj JUN_TOJ
hun toh
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deidad Sotz'i Ja Chimalkan SOTZI_JA_CHIMALKAN
tzotziha chimalcan
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deidad Chamalkan CHAMALKAN
chamalcan
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deidad Ixtaj IXTAJ
xtah
Ixtaj

Xtaj, translated as Lady Lust by Christenson, is one of the two women sent by the enemy nations to seduce the three gods of the K'iche' people, Tojil, Awilix, and Jaqawitz. According to Christenson, in the name Xtaj, "X- is the prefix indicating 'female,' or a diminuitive such as 'little.' Taj is 'sexual desire, lust, or promiscuity.'" (2007: 241, note 640). For more information, see the page on Xtaj and Xpuch.

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deidad Ixpuch' IXPUCH
xpuch
Ixpuch'

Ixpuch' is one of the women sent by the enemy nations to seduce the gods of the K'iche' people, Tojil, Awilix, and Jaqawitz. Christenson provides two interpretations of this name: in one sense, it could be from the K'iche' word puch', which "is 'weeping from illness or pain rather than sadness'" or from the Keqchi or Poqom languages, where "puch is 'washing clothes,' with the connotation of 'menstruating'" (2007: 241, note 641).

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deidad volcán de Fuego VOLCÁN_DE_FUEGO
ri chicac (¿?)
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deidad Chimalmat CHIMALMAT
chimalmat

Según informa Sam Colop (2011: nota 55, página 210), "Chimalmat es palabra k'iche'; chi es preposición y malmatik es verbo que indica correr detrás de algo. D. Tedlock (1996: 241) asocia a Chimalmat con la 'Osa Menor', lo cual concuerca con su pareja Wuqub Kak'ix, 'Osa Mayor'".

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deidad Kabraqan KABRAQAN
cabracan
Kabraqan

Kabraqan is the powerful second son of Seven Macaw (Wuqub’ Kak’ix). Alongside this power, he causes the earth to tremble and he is known for his pride, which is occasionally self-proclaimed: “el terzero q’ seensoberbezío…dezía yosoy el q’destruigo los zerros / Rox chicut nimarizai…in yohol huiub” [the third of the prideful sons…said, ‘I am the one who destroys mountains’] (10v).Upon noticing this excessive pride, three deities, Juracan, Youngest Thunderbolt, and Sudden Thunderbolt, speak to the hero twins, asking them to defeat Kabraqan.

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deidad Sipakna SIPAKNA
zipacna

Sipakna is killed when the Hero Twins trick him into being crushed by a mountain (Meawan). Christensen (page 96, note 168) suggests that a toponym associated with Sipakna still exists. "This is a long hill in the center of the Rabinal valley roughly the shape of a crocodile. It is still called Sipak and the people of Rabinal associate it with a crocodile (Akkeren 2000, 60)." Since Meawan is also near Rabinal, it is not impossible that Sipak represents Sipakna's actual body underneath the layer of stone that crushed him.

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deidad Junajpu JUNAJPU
hun ahpu

Junajpu "is a day on the traditional highland Maya calendar, dedicated to the memory of ancestors" (Christenson 2007: note 223, page 113).

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deidad Wuqub Kak'ix WUQUB_KAKIX
vvcub caquix

Christenson (2007: note 150, page 78) notes that "The scarlet macaw (Ara macao) is a large species of parrot with beautiful, bright-red plumage. Seven Macaw is portrayed as a boastful individual whose ultimate downfall is ordained by Heart of Sky because of the excessive pride he had in his glorious appearance."

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deidad jaguar batidor JAGUAR_BATIDOR
tucumbalam
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deidad jaguar masticador JAGUAR_MASTICADOR
cotzbalam
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deidad murciélagos decapitadores MURCIÉLAGOS_DECAPITADORES
camalotz
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deidad volcán de Acatenango VOLCÁN_DE_ACATENANGO
hun ahpu
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deidad Pekul PEKUL
pecul
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deidad Ya'xkanul YAXKANUL
yaxcanul
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deidad Wuqub Kame WUQUB_KAME
vvcub came
Wuqub' Kame

Wuqub' Kame [Seven Death] is one of the principal lords of Xibalba along with Jun Kame [One Death]. Tedlock (1996: 251) explains that the name of Wuqub' Kame is a reference to the day number seven and day name Kame on the K'iche' calendar. For more information, see the entry on "Jun Kame and Wuqub' Kame."

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deidad Jun Kame JUN_KAME
huncame
Jun Kame

Jun Kame [One Death] is one of the principal lords of Xibalba along with Wuqub' Kame [Seven Death]. Tedlock (1996: 251) explains that the name of Jun Kame is a reference to the day number one and day name Kame on the K'iche' calendar. For more information, see the entry on "Jun Kame and Wuqub' Kame."

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deidad Ixbaqiyalo IXBAQIYALO
xbaquíyalo
Ixbaqiyalo

Ixbaqiyalo is the wife of Jun Junajpu and mother of One Monkey [Jun B'atz' ] and One Artisan [Jun Chuwen]. Christenson (2007: 113, note 226) interprets her name's etmology as "x- (lady), baqi, (bone), ya' (water/river), lo (perhaps), yielding Lady Bone Water.

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deidad Jun Chowen JUN_CHOWEN
hun chouen

Christenson (2007: note 225, page 101) notes, "Chouen is derived from the Yucatec Maya word chuen, meaning 'howler monkey.' In addition, aj chuen is a title meaning 'artisan' (Barrera Vásquez 1995, 110), a reading consistent with the artistic nature of these twins. Twin monkey scribes appear frequently in Classic Maya art as patrons of writing. It is also the Yucatec Maya day name that corresponds to the day B'atz' in the Quiché calendar."

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deidad Jun Batz' JUN_BATZ
hun batz
Jun Batz'

Christenson (2007: note 224, page 101) notes, "B'atz' is the Quiché word for the howler monkey. It is also one of the named days from the traditional highland Maya calendar." In the traditional calendar, B'atz' follows Q'anil, Toj, and Tz'i', the gods that Ixmukane invokes in her milpa ceremony (ibid, note 315, page 126).

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deidad Wuqub Junajpu WUQUB_JUNAJPU
vvcub hun ahpu
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deidad Dos Muchachos DOS_MUCHACHOS
caib qaholab
Dos Muchachos

"Dos Muchachos" is Ximénez’s literal translation of the K’iche’ caib qaholab (or kaib k’ajolab’ in modern orthography), meaning “two children” when referencing Junajpu and Xbalanke, the hero twins. These components break down into keb’, meaning “two;” and k’ajol, meaning “son of father,” and -ab, a plural marker.

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deidad Julisnab JULISNAB
huliznab
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deidad Makamob MAKAMOB
macamob
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deidad Escarbador ESCARBADOR
xe cotcovach
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deidad Serpiente Emplumada SERPIENTE_EMPLUMADA
tepeu qucumatz

Most translators (Christenson 2007: 17, lines 145-146; Recinos 2012: 23) translate the concept of the name "serpiente emplumada" (feathered serpent) into the proper name of the divine figure Q'ukumatz (or Gucumatz, in Recinos's orthography), more commonly known as the Mesoamerican god, Quetzalcoatl. But K'iche' translator and scholar Sam Colop offers a different interpretation, which we represent below in Spanish.

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deidad Uk'u'x Kaj Uk'u'x Ulew UKUX_KAJ_UKUX_ULEW
el corazon de el zielo, y el corazon de la tierra
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deidad Q'ukumatz QUKUMATZ
gucumatz
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deidad Tepew TEPEW
tepeu
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deidad Saqi Nim Aq Sis SAQI_NIM_AQ_SIS
Zaquinima tzÿz

Christenson (2007: note 17, p. 52) translates the name Saqi Nima Aq as "Great White Peccary"; Colop (2008) pairs Saqi Nima Aq with the word Sis in the following line, while Christenson treats them as separate but related references for Xpiyacoc and Xmucane.

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deidad Junajpu Utiw JUNAJPU_UTIW
hun ahpu vtiu
Junajpu Utiw

Junajpu Utiw is mentioned as a poetic pair of Junajpu Wuch' in the beginning of the Popol Wuj. Christenson (2007: 61, note 15) translates Junajpu Wuch' and Junajpu Utiw as "Hunahpu Possum and Hunahpu Coyote," who "are also likely titles for the gods Xpiyacoc and Xmucane." Christenson (ibid: note 16) also adds, "Utiw is the coyote (Canis latrans), an animal also associated with the night."

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deidad Junajpu Wuch' JUNAJPU_WUCH
hun ahpu vuch
Junajpu Wuch'

Junajpu Wuch' is mentioned as a poetic pair of Junajpu Utiw in the beginning of the Popol Wuj.

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deidad K'ajolom KAJOLOM
qaholom

Colop (2008: nota 2, página 201) señala que el nombre K'ajolom "viene de k'ajol, 'niño' o 'hijo de varón'", y que en esta manera el dios K'ajolom forma la necesaria parte complimentaria a la diosa Alom, cuyo nombre "viene de ali, 'niña'". Sigue el destacado traductor: "La partícula -om es un agentivo que hace referencia a su calidad de mujer que 'concibe' y al varón que 'engendra', respectivamente. Éstos son adjetivos que hacen referencia a la pareja creadora en una lectura antropomórfica".

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deidad Alom ALOM
alom

Colop (2008: nota 2, página 201) señala que "Alom viene de ali, 'niña', y k'ajolom viene de k'ajol, 'niño' o 'hijo de varón'. La partícula -om es un agentivo que hace referencia a su calidad de mujer que 'concibe' y al varón que 'engendra', respectivamente. Éstos son adjetivos que hacen referencia a la pareja creadora en una lectura antropomórfica".

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deidad Bitol BITOL
bitol
Bitol

Sam Colop (2008: nota 1, página 201) observa que el nombre divino, aquí escrito en forma de quiasmo, significa "Literalmente el 'constructor' y 'creador'. Tz'qa y bit son raíces verbales 'construir' y 'crear'. Tz'aq quiere decur 'construcción' y bit 'creación'. El sufijo -ol, en ambos sustantivos, es marcador agentivo."

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deidad Tz'aqol TZAQOL
tzacol
Tz'aqol

Colop (2008: nota 1, página 201) observa que el nombre divino, aquí escrito en forma de quiasmo, significa "Literalmente el 'constructor' y 'creador'. Tz'qa y bit son raíces verbales 'construir' y 'crear'. Tz'aq quiere decur 'construcción' y bit 'creación'. El sufijo -ol, en ambos sustantivos, es marcador agentivo."

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deidad Tepew Q'ukumatz TEPEW_QUKUMATZ
tepeu, qucumatz

Colop (2011: nota 5, páginas 201-202) observa que "Tepew es una palabra náhuatl que significa 'conquistador' o 'victorioso' y se compone de los términos te- 'gente' y -pew, 'conquistar' (Campbell, 1983), que en este caso es el adjetivo, y Q'ukumatz es el nominal. La expresión ha sido traducida como 'majestad' (Edmonson, 1971: 4) y 'soberana' (D. Tedlock, 1996: 63). En este contexto es una metonimia de Quetzalcóatl. Q'ukumatz es mi escritura porque Recinos lo escribe Gucumatz.

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deidad Corazón del lago CORAZÓN_DEL_LAGO
vqux cho

En el actual idioma k'iche', se escribe el título "corazón del lago", según apunta Sam Colop en su versión poética del texto (1999: 2), "Uk'ux Cho." De forma paralela, el título "corazón del mar", el cual también se refiere al poder del dios creador Q'ukumatz, será "Uk'ux Palo."

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deidad Raxa Kaqulja RAXA_KAQULJA
raxa caculha
Raxa Kaqulja

Raxa Kaqulja is one of the manifestations of the god Heart of Sky [Uk'u'x Kaj]. Christenson (2007: 71, note 64) notes that "xa (green, new, fresh, sudden)...is a sudden flash or bolt of lightning" and that it "may also refer to the lightning's ability to renew or regenerate." Tedlock (1996: 224, note 65) adds that "'Sudden' translates raxa, 'green, raw, fresh, sudden.'" The names of Raxa Kaqulja and Ch'ipi Kaqulja "refer not only to the shafts of lightning fulgurites, grassy stones formed by lightning in sandy soil."

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deidad Ch'ipi Kaqulja CHIPI_KAQULJA
chípa caculha
Ch'ipi Kaqulja

Ch'ipi Kaqulja is one of the manifestations of the god Heart of Sky [Uk'u'x Kaj]. Christenson (2007: 70, note 63) notes that "Ch'i'p refers to the youngest member of the family or the smallest member of a group." Tedlock (1996: 224, note 65) adds the meaning of "newborn," and that Ch'ipi Kaqulja along with Raxa Kaqulja allude not only to "shafts of lightning but to fulgurites, glassy stones formed by lightning in sandy soil."

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deidad Kaqulja Jun Raqan KAQULJA_JUN_RAQAN
caculha huracan
Kaqulja Jun Raqan

Kaqulja Jun Raqan is one of the gods that makes up the Heart of Sky [Uk'u'x Kaj]. Tedlock (1996: 224, note 65) explains that "The term for thunderbolt is kaqulja [caculha], referring to a shaft of lighting (with accompanying thunder), as contrasted with koyopa, referring to sheet lighting seen in the distance (without visible shafts or adubile thunder).

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deidad Uk'u'x Kaj UKUX_KAJ
vqux cah huracan
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deidad Ixmukane IXMUKANE
Xmucane

Colop (2011: nota 8, página 202) explica el significado del nombre de la abuela, según la traducción del padre Ximénez, "quiere decir 'entierro o fosa'". Por su parte Adrián Recinos (1953: 83) afirma que "estos nombres equivalen a 'los dios mexicanos Cipactonal y Oxmoco, los sabios que según la leyenda tolteca inventaron la astrología judiciaria y compusieron la cuenta de los tiempos, o sea el calendario'.

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deidad Xpiyakok XPIYAKOK
xpiyacoc

Christenson (2007: note 26, page 54) observes, "Xpiyacoc is the male deity, while Xmucane serves as the divine female principal that brings about the creation. The derivation of the name Xpiyacoc is problematic.

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deidad los de la bóveda azul LOS_DE_LA_BÓVEDA_AZUL
ah raxatzel chu qhaxic

Colop (2011: nota 6, página 202) explica así el origen conceptual de la ‘bóveda azul’: “Esto viene de que ajraxa laq, ajraxa tzel, metáfora asociada a lo plano y verde de la Tierra y de la bóveda cósmica. Laq literalmente es ‘plato’ y tzel es recipiente de forma redonda. Esto quiere decir, los guías espirituales mitológicos que ofrecen ceremonias a la Tierra y al Cielo. El color azul está asociado a la bóveda del Cielo.”

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deidad los de la superficie plana LOS_DE_LA_SUPERFICIE_PLANA
ah raxalaꜫ

Colop (2011: nota 6, página 202) explica así el origen conceptual de la 'superficie plana' y su importante vínculo con la 'bóveda azul', aquí comunicado con el uso de la técnica retórica del quiasmo. Escribe: “Esto viene de que ajraxa laq, ajraxa tzel, metáfora asociada a lo plano y verde de la Tierra y de la bóveda cósmica. Laq literalmente es ‘plato’ y tzel es recipiente de forma redonda. Esto quiere decir, los guías espirituales mitológicos que ofrecen ceremonias a la Tierra y al Cielo. El color azul está asociado a la bóveda del Cielo.”

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deidad Corazón del mar CORAZÓN_DEL_MAR
vqux palo

En el actual idioma k'iche', se escribe el título "corazón del mar", según apunta Sam Colop en su versión poética del texto (1999: 2), "Uk'ux Palo." De forma paralela, el título "corazón del lago", el cual también se refiere al poder del dios creador Q'ukumatz, será "Uk'ux Cho."

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persona Kak'ixa Ja' KAKIXAJA
caqúíxa ha
Kak'ixa Ja'

Kak'ixa Ja' is the fourth woman of the first four women created by the gods. Christenson (2007: 202, note 499) translates it as "Macaw House,” a name that Tedlock (1996: 290, note 149) believes is related to the Kaqchikel people (for more info on this, see tema “Kaqchikeleb.”) For more information on this woman and the other three women, see the tema "The First Four Women."

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deidad Quetzalcóatl QUETZALCÓATL
quitzalcuat
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deidad Ik'ibalam IKIBALAM
Iquibalam
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deidad Majuk'utaj MAJUKUTAJ
Mahucutah

Christenson (2007: note 479, p. 184) notes that name of this deity is "problematic." As he explains, "Carmack believes that it is derived from the lowland Maya word for 'Traveler,' or 'One Who Does Not Stay' (Carmack 1981, 49). Tedlock translates it as 'Not Right Now' based on the Quiché ma, 'not,' and jukotaj, 'right away/in a moment' (Basseta). Akkeren (personal communication) suggests that the name is derived from the Mam jukotaj (elder, eminent one). Coto lists hu cotah as 'one crown, ring, or similar round object' (Coto 1983, 474).

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deidad Balam Aq'ab BALAM_AQAB
Balam acab
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deidad Balam Ki'tze' BALAM_KITZE
Balam qui tze
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deidad Pak'am PAKAM
xulupacam
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deidad Xulu XULU
xuluppacam

En la nota 173 Colop explica, “En el diccionario de Basseta encontramos ajxulu como “adivino”, equivalente a ajq´ij. Conforme a Coto (1983: 140), xulu son “unos demoñuelos o familiares que se les aparecían junto a los ríos”. Conforme a Varea (1997: 358), “al que curaba con estos diablillos, llamaban aj-q´ij, aj-xulu”. Todo indica que Xulu es el “sacerdote del agua”. Pak´am parece derivar de pak´alik, “dar vuelta”, “boca arriba”, cuyo significado sería darle vuelta a lo que se mira. D.

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deidad Pujuy PUJUY
puhuyu
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deidad Xpurpuweq XPURPUWEQ
xparpuec
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deidad Kik' Rixk'aq KIK_RIXKAQ
quíc ríx ꜫaꜫ
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persona Kaqa palo ja' KAQAPALOJA
caha paluma
Kaqa Palo Ja'

Kaqa Palo Ja' is the first woman of the first four women created by the gods. The translation of the name is generally associated with the sea. Christenson (2007: 202, note 497) translates it as "Sky Sea Horse," while Tedlock (1996: 290, note 148) translates it as "Red Sea Turtle." For more information on this woman and the other three women, see the tema "The First Four Women."

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persona Chomi ja' CHOMIJA
chumíha
Chomi Ja'

Chomi Ja’ is the second woman of the first four women created by the gods. Christenson (2007: 202, note 498) and Tedlock (1996: 290, note 148) translate it as “Shrimp House.” For more information on this woman and the other three women, see the tema "The First Four Women."

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deidad Yolkwat YOLKWAT
yolcuat
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deidad Wok WOK
voc hunahpu
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deidad Nik'aqaj Taq'aj NIKAQAJ_TAQAJ
nicacahtacah
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deidad Jaqawitz JAQAWITZ
hacauitz

Carmack (1981: page 50) says this diety "was possibly related to the merchant deity of the Gulf Coast peoples. The Popol Vuh informs us that bees and wasps were the symbol of this god, just as they represented the merchant deity of the coastal peoples."

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deidad Awilix AWILIX
avilix

According to Allen Christenson (2007: note 552, page 198), "In the Quiché language, this would read 'you are watched over/cared for/commissioned.' Throughout the text, the Quichés promise to watch over and care for their gods, providing them with offerings, sustenance, and worship (p. 290; lines 8344-8346, 8379-8388). Tedlock suggests that it may be derived from the Kekchi, kwilix/wilix, “swallow” (the bird) and reads the full name as Lord Swallow (D. Tedlock 1996, 297 n. 152).

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deidad Tojil TOJIL
tohil

According to Christenson (2007: 198), "In the Quiché language, tojil refers to a 'payment, debt, obligation, or tribute.' This is consistent with this god’s demand for tribute and sacrifice. Toj is one of the named days in the highland Maya calendar. During divination ceremonies the day Toj implies the need to pay a debt in a metaphoric sense."

In contrast, Coe and Houston (2015: 226) reference "the Temple of Tojil, a Jaguar deity connected with the sun and rain."

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deidad K'enech Ajaw KENECH_AJAW
quenech, ahau
K'enech ajaw
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deidad Ixtoj IXTOJ
xtoh
Xtoj

Ixtoj is one of the goddesses invoked by Ixkik' [Lady Blood] in order to return a netful of maize to Ixmukane [the Grandmother]. Christenson relates her name to the day Toj on the K'iche' calendar round (2007: 138, note 311). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."

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persona Tz'ununi Ja' TZUNUNIJA
tzununíha
Tz'ununi Ja'

Tz’ununi Ja’ is the third woman of the first four women created by the gods. Christenson (2007: 202, note 499) translates it as "Hummingbird House," while Tedlock (1996: 290, note 148) translates it as something like "Water Hummingbird." For more information on this woman and the other three women, see the tema "The First Four Women."

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deidad Kik' Re KIK_RE
quíc xíc
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deidad sangre de sacrificio SANGRE_DE_SACRIFICIO
lotzquíc
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deidad Wak WAK
vac
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deidad Tecolote Flecha TECOLOTE_FLECHA
saeta tecolote
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deidad Patan PATAN
patan
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deidad Ajal Toq'ob AJAL_TOQOB
ahaltocob

Christenson (2007: note 240, page 104) translates the diety's name as "Stabbings Demon," derived from "the root toq' (to stab, to gore)."

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deidad Ajal Mes AJAL_MES
ahalmez

Ximénez (13r) defines the name as "el q’hazía vasura" (he who makes trash). However, this translation flattens the spiritual significance of sweeping. Within K'iche' cosmovisión, the act of sweeping (mes) with a broom (mesb'al), is considered a way to keep demons from the underworld from entering the house. See Christenson (2007: note 239, p. 104), citing Tedlock (1996: note 92, p. 253).

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deidad Ch'amiyajolom CHAMIYAJOLOM
chamia holom
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deidad Ch'amiyabaq CHAMIYABAQ
chamia bac

El nombre del dios Ch'amiyabaq significa, conforme a la explicación de Sam Colop (2011: nota 82), es "Señor de la Vara de Hueso", ya que Ch'amiy o ch'amiya, "con -a final como inserción vocálica, quiere decir 'vara' o 'cetro', símbolo de autoridad. Baq es 'hueso'." El nombre de su par, Ch'amiyajolom, significa "Señor de la Vara de Hueso."

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deidad ictericia ICTERICIA
chuꜫanal
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deidad Ajal Q'ana AJAL_QANA
ahal ꜫana

Christenson (2007: note 236 p. 103) translates the name of this Lord of Xibalba as "Janudice Demon," following the meaning of q'ana, “yellowness, jaundice.” He also notes that like Ajal Q'ana's complement, Ajal Puj, Ajal Q'ana carries part of a name, Ajal, that "is likely a loan word from Chol, meaning “evil spirit” (Campbell 1983, 81)."

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deidad Ajal Puj AJAL_PUJ
ahal puh

Christenson (2007: note 236 p. 103): "Ajal Puj, Ajal Q'ana." Ajal is likely a loan word from Chol, meaning “evil spirit” (Campbell 1983, 81). Puj is “pus,” and q'ana is “yellowness, jaundice.”

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deidad Tecolote de una Pierna TECOLOTE_DE_UNA_PIERNA
tecolote de vna pierna
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deidad Tecolote Guacamaya TECOLOTE_GUACAMAYA
guacamaya tecolote
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deidad Saqikas SAQIKAS
zaquícaz
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deidad Tamasul TAMASUL
tamazul
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deidad Ixtziya' IXTZIYA
tziya
Ix pu Tziya

Ixtziya'  is one of the goddesses invoked by Ixkik' to ensure she can return a netful of maize to Ixmukane. She has been interpreted differently across translationsm and in fact in some she is not her own specifcally named deity. Christenson reads her name as related to the calendar name Tz'i', meaning "dog" in K'iche' (2007: 139, note 314). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."

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deidad Ixkakaw IXKAKAW
xcacauíx
Xkakaw

Ixkakaw is one of the goddess invoked by Ixkik' [Lady Blood] in order to return a netful of maize to Ixmukane [the Grandmother]. Christenson relates the name to the Mesoamerican cacao, a highly valued currency in this region (2007: 138, note 313). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."

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deidad Ixq'anil IXQANIL
xcanil
Xq'anil

Ixq'anil is one of the goddesses invoked by Ixkik' [Lady Blood] in order to return a netful of maize to Ixmukane [the Grandmother]. Christenson relates her name to the calendar day Q'anil on the K'iche' calendar round (2007: 138, note 312). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."

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deidad Xikiri Pat XIKIRI_PAT
xic
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deidad Ixkik' IXKIK
xquíc

Lady Blood, or Ixkik’, is the daughter of Kuchuma Kik’ (“Gathered Blood”), a Lord of Xibalba. She escapes from Xibalba after being impregnated by the skull of Jun Junajpu. Her encounters during her escape, and her role in the birth of the Hero Twins, Junajpu a Xb’alanke, portrays a powerful female figure in the Popol Wuj  in face of the Lords’ desire to sacrifice her.

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grupo de deidades Señores de Xibalba SEÑORES_DE_XIBALBA
conohel rahaual xibalba
Rajawal Xib'alb'a

The lords of Xibalba are a group of deities. Within the group, each deity is paired with another lord, both having a specific combined way of killing or torturing humans. In turn, the pairs are ruled by two main deities: Wuqub’ Kame and Jun Kame. Tedlock (1996: 136) and Christenson (2007: 162-63) maintain the parallelism of the naming of the lords of Xibalba in a critical scene in which a mosquito, named Xan, bites all the lords on the Black Road.

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deidad Tecolote Cabeza TECOLOTE_CABEZA
tecolote cabeza
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deidad Chak KAQ
ꜫaꜫ
Kaq

When the Hero Twins first arrive at the crossroads of Xilbaba, they face four possible paths: the red way, black way, white way, and yellow way. Ximénez expresses these paths in colonial K'iche' as "hun ꜫaꜫabe, hun cut queca be, zaqui be hun, hun cut eana be cahib be" (14r).

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deidad Chipi Kakulja CHIPI_CACULHA
chipicaculha
chipi caculha
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deidad Kuchuma Kik' KUCHUMA_KIK
cuchumaquic
Kuchuma Kik'
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deidad Juraqan HURACAN
huracan
Juraqan

As Christenson (2007: page 59, footnote 56) explains, there is a complex etymological and conceptual link between Jun Raqan (juraqan/hurricane) and the creator diety, Uk'u'x Kaj (Heart of Sky); they are sometimes referred to as one in the same. According to Christenson, Uk'u'x Kaj "appears to be the principal god in the Popol Vuh account. He is the only deity to appear in every phase of the creation, as well as throughout the mythologic and historical portions of the text. K'ux refers to the heart as the source of the 'vital spirit' of a thing, or that which gives it life.

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deidad Xbalanke XBALAMKE
Xbalanque
Xbalanke

Sam Colop (2011: nota 52, páginas 209-210) destaca las varias e importantes interpretaciones del personaje divino. Escribe: "Una interpretación de este nombre es 'Pequeño Jaguar-venado' donde el prefijo x- indica el diminutivo, balam es 'jaguar' y ke es apócope de kej que significa 'venado'. Sin embargo, D. Tedlock (1996: 239) presenta una interesante traducción al identificar balam con 'jaguar' y 'oculto'; Q'e, 'Sol' en su fase nocturna de acuerdo con la tradición q'eqchi'.

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deidad Jun Junajpu JUN_JUNAJPU
hunhunahpu
Jun Junajpu

Christenson (2007: note 163, page 81) notes the difficult nature of interpreting the name of the father of the Hero Twins. He writes, "The father of the culture hero Hunahpu is named Hun Hunahpu, which if translated literally would mean 'One One Master of the Blowgun,' a needlessly redundant reading unless Hunahpu were meant to be read as a single untranslated name."

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