deidad : Xbalamke

Solapas principales

Información básica

Tipo: 
Nombre analítico: 
XBALAMKE
Ortografía de Ximénez (quc): 
Xbalanque
Ortografía de Colop: 
Xbalamke
Ortografía de Christenson: 
Baby Jaguar
Género: 
female
Descripción: 

Sam Colop (2011: nota 52, páginas 209-210) destaca las varias e importantes interpretaciones del personaje divino. Escribe: "Una interpretación de este nombre es 'Pequeño Jaguar-venado' donde el prefijo x- indica el diminutivo, balam es 'jaguar' y ke es apócope de kej que significa 'venado'. Sin embargo, D. Tedlock (1996: 239) presenta una interesante traducción al identificar balam con 'jaguar' y 'oculto'; Q'e, 'Sol' en su fase nocturna de acuerdo con la tradición q'eqchi'. Balamq'e, 'dios Sol (el-Sol-de noche va como tigre al oriente...') (Haeserijn, 1979: 53), lo que a su vez se confirma al final del relato mitológico. El primer genelo se convierte en Sol y el segundo en la Luna, lo cual puede entenderse propiamente como el 'Sol escondido durante la noche' o su reflejo porque en k'iche' a la Luna también se le identifica como 'Sol nocturno'. Nótese además que es Xbalamke quien reconstruy e la cabeza de Junajpu, y eso ocurre durante la noche, y que en q'eqchi', po es 'Luna' o 'mes' con lo cual existiría un juego de sonidos con la sílaba final del término Junajpu".

Christenson (2007: note 164, pages 81-2) notes, "the derivation of the name Xbalanque is problematic. The prefix x- is a diminutive as well as a feminine indicator. Thus, depending on the context, it may mean 'young, small, little,' or it may be used as a female title, such as 'lady.' The latter usage has led to some speculation that Xbalanque may have been the twin sister of Hunahpu, acting as the female counterpart to the male powers of the hunter. This theory is not supported by the text, however, which consistently refers to the twins as 'sons' or 'boys.' Hunahpu himself often carries the x- prefix, although not as consistently as his brother (see lines 4307, 4550, 4576, 4586, 4646, 4725). B'alan is undoubtedly an archaic spelling of b'alam (jaguar), m/n letter substitutions being fairly common in Quiché. Indeed, Vico transcribed the name in his Theologia Indorum as Xbalamquej (Carmack and Morales Santos 1983, 6-8). Known for its ferocity and cunning, the jaguar is the largest predator in Mesoamerica. Rulers decorated their thrones with jaguar symbols and wore jaguar pelts to emphasize lordly power. In addition, the jaguar is associated with ritual powers of transformation and prophecy. The terminal ke is more difficult to interpret. The most likely derivations are kej (deer) or q'ij (sun or day). The latter possibility is intriguing. The Maya closely identified the jaguar with the sun, particularly in its journey through the underworld at night. The story of Xbalanque and his brother focuses on their passage through the underworld, where they defeat the lords of death, ultimately to become the apotheosed sun and moon in the sky. Father Bartolomé de las Casas was told in the sixteenth century that Exbalanquen was a god from the area of the Guatemalan Alta Verapaz who made war with the lords of hell and returned as a great ruler (Las Casas 1958, 427). The word for sun in the Kekchi-Maya dialect of the Alta Verapaz region is q'e, and Xbalamq'e is still remembered by the Kekchi as a sun god (D. Tedlock 1996, 239 n. 77). If this name is purely of Kekchi origin, Balamq’e may be read in that language as 'hidden sun, or the night sun' (Ibid.). The most likely translation of the name would therefore be 'Young Hidden/Jaguar Sun.'"

Jueves, Julio 16, 2020 - 11:32
Last modified: 
Jueves, Julio 16, 2020 - 11:32
Autor: 
br2md
Fuentes Bibliográficas: 
Colop, Sam. Popol Wuj. Ciudad de Guatemala: F&G Editores, 2011. Web.
Christenson, Allen J. Popol Vuh: The Sacred Book Of The Maya. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. Print.
es asociadx de Junajpu
es asociadx de Wub'
es asociadx de Junajpu Mico
es hijo de Jun Junajpu
es hijo de Ixkik'