Anotaciones

Nombre Título Lineas Contenido
Aldo Barriente Changes in naming of House of Cold
  • Folio 15 rectoColumn ALine 1-3
  • Folio 15 rectoColumn BLine 3-4
  • Folio 26 versoColumn ALine 11
  • Folio 26 versoColumn BLine 14

The House of Cold was one of the challenges for the Hero Twins put in place by the Lords of Xibalba. However, the name changes depending on whether Jun Junajpu and Wuqub’ Junajpu, or Junajpu and Xb’alamke are entering. The name itself changes from “House of Cold” or “Shivering/Rattling House” to “Kneeling House.” Ximénez first calls it, in K’iche’, “vcab / chi cut xuxulim ha vbi ꜩaꜩ chi teu vpam zac xuruxuh zac / caracoh,” and, in Spanish, “casa donde arrodillaban, do solo auía mucho / frío de muy intolerable, eínsoportable frío” (15r).

Aldo Barriente Xan, the mosquito, and Junajpu's hair
  • Folio 24 versoColumn ALine 05"rumal rismal vvach vchec hun ahpu xba-/lanque"
  • Folio 24 versoColumn BLine 05“por un pelo de la cara de hun ahpu”

(English) In this instance, Junajpu and Xb’alanke use the trickery of the lords of Xibalba against them. They request help from a mosquito ((Xa’n or Us in modern K’iche’) named Xan to fly forward and sting all of the lords. This comedic scene describes each lord being stung, to which another lord asks the other what happened, until all the lords have named themselves, with the exception of the first two dummy lords. In this way, all of the lords effectively reveal themselves to the hero twins.

Aldo Barriente Xan, the mosquito, and Junajpu's hair
  • Folio 24 versoColumn ALine 05"rumal rismal vvach vchec hun ahpu xba-/lanque"
  • Folio 24 versoColumn BLine 05“por un pelo de la cara de hun ahpu”

In this instance, Junajpu and Xb’alanke use the trickery of the lords of Xibalba against them. They request help from a mosquito (Xa’n or Us in modern K’iche’) named Xan to fly forward and sting all of the lords. In this comedic scene, one lord in the series is stung and another lord asks the other what happened, until all the lords have named themselves to the Hero Twins. Notably, the first two dummy lords do not name themselves.

Karina A. Baptista The Third Magic War: The Lords of Xibalbá
  • Folio 23 versoColumn BLine 10
  • Folio 32 versoColumn BLine 24

In the series of the first, second, and third magic war, the third and ultimate magic war is the clearest manifestation of the power of the word.  Junajpu and Xbalanke/Ixbalanqué use their intelligence to communicate with the natural world, achieve a common end, bring about the punishment of transgressors, and maintain the equilibrium of life -- the ultimate goal of Mesoamerican cosmolo

Karina A. Baptista The Second Magic War: Jun Batz' and Jun Chowen
  • Folio 18 rectoColumn BLine 08
  • Folio 19 versoColumn BLine 41

To fully understand Jun Batz' and Jun Chowen, we must know what it means to be an artisan. In general, Mayanists agree that "artisan knowledge" must be defined on its own terms. Rafael Girard argues in particular that artisans, or artists who transform raw matter into a higher order of culture, represent a key stage in the development of a civilization. 

Karina A. Baptista The First Magic War: Wuqub Kak'ix, Sipakna, and Kabraqan
  • Folio 05 versoColumn BLine 10
  • Folio 12 rectoColumn BLine 14

The first magic war begins with the family of Wuqub Kak'ix, which according to Nahum Megged and Rafael Girard, represents the “horizonte primitivo” (Los héroes gemelos 59).  They bespeak ignorance through and through.  That is why, in the words of Girard, “El gigante [Vucub-Caquix] ignoraba la manera de curarse y por esto gritaba de dolor, ofreciendo, un cuadro patético en el que se quiso destacar la ignorancia de los primitivos en el campo de la medicina, en contraste con los conocimiento de una época mas avanzada” (El Popol-Vuh, fuente histórica 79). 

Michelet McLean Maiz

In this scene, Balam K'itze', Balam Aq'ab, Majuk'utaj, and Iki'balam are on a mountain with their wives, Kaqapaloja', Chomija', Tz'ununija', and Kak'ixaja', starving and eating no more than a corn-based beverage. This is one of many scenes in which the authors of the Popol Wuj show how corn is a gift from the Gods to the Mesoamerican people.

Michelet McLean Tulan/ Tulanzu (Siete Cuevas, Siete Quebradas)

Balam Quitze, Balam Acab, Mahucutah, and Iqui Balam arrived to the City of Tulan Zuyva, and the names of the city were, "Seven Caves and Seven Canyons" (Christenson, 2007 ,197).  Christenson annotated different possible meanings of Tulan, "In the Quiché language, tulan  is a 'palace, or manor-house' (Basseta), while tolan  is a city or house that has been abandoned, perhaps referring to theruins of once great cities that dot the region and that belong to the legendary ancestors of the Maya people" (Christenson, 2007, 197). 

Karina A. Baptista Concluding Remarks: Punishment, Justice, and the Cosmovisión

Through each one of these wars, the twin brothers exemplify a world in which, as the Spanish saying goes, todo cae por su propio peso: he whose vanity stems from his beauty and riches is turned ugly and poor; he whose arrogance rests on his power to create mountains is transformed into stone; he who prides himself on his ability to make collapse mountains is buried under them; those whose artistic ability inflates their ego are turned into monkeys; and finally, those who mock and ridicule others are mocked and ridiculed.  The cycles of transgression and punishment help craft the

Karina A. Baptista Introduction: Justice, Punishment, and the Word

An ancient text of unexpired validity, the Popol Vuh, most commonly known as the Mayan Book of Creation or the Book of Council, offers the reader myriad lines of inquiry.  Whether it be its linguistic abstraction and frequent untranslatability or its interrelatedness with other Mesoamerican myths of creation, each one of its components works within a wide arrange of stories, times, and spaces to project the cosmovisión of the Quiche people past and present.  Such a layered composition of meaning lends itself to and yet complicates the work of digital humanists in creating

Allison Margaret Bigelow Francisco Marroquín and Q'umarkaj

In a marginal gloss, Ximénez clarifies that Francisco Marroquín is the “Sor obispo” referenced in the text, and the official who blessed Q’umarkaj (or Utatlán). Adrián Recinos notes was the most important city in Central America at the time of the Spanish conquest (178).

Matthew Richey Hombres de maíz: ciclos de creación
  • Folio 03 rectoColumn BLine 02Line 25
  • Folio 33 rectoColumn BLine 01Line 30

The materiality of the failed forms of humans, particularly in comparison with the description of the successful formation of humans much later in the text, is worth mentioning here in relation to the above reference to their eventual roles as providers and sustainers. One of the early attempts at creating humans results in a creature whose body “desbarataba, y estaba blando, y apelmazado, y desmadexado, y se desmoronaba, y se humedezía … aunq’ hablaba, no tenía entendimiento, sino q’se rebenía en el agua, no era fuerte” (Ximénez Folio 3 Verso).

Matthew Richey Maíz and Creation
  • Folio 03 rectoColumn BLine 32Line 39

The discourse regarding possible parallels between Mayan and Christian accounts of creation have long been a part of Popol Wuj scholarship. As the root of Maya community life, and a root metaphor of the Christian faith, agriculture has become a key site of debate among scholars. Below we gloss some of the major threads of these polemics, and provide sources for additional reading.

María Esparza Rodríguez Las doncellas como tentación

En él cuarto capítulo del PV de la versión de Sam Colop hay una escena en la que Ixtaj e Ixpuch’, dos doncellas hermosas y un tanto sumisas, son enviadas al río por los hombres del pueblo para tentar a Tojil, a Awilix y a Jaqawitz con el fin de vencerlos. Sobre los nombres de las doncellas Colop explica que “En El Título de Totonicapán (Carmack y Mondloch, 1983: 180), se proporciona un tercer nombre: Q’uibatsunjá. De hecho estos nombres quieren decir: ixtaj, “niña”, en kaqchikel; ixpuch’, “tierna” en k’iche’ como cuando una fruta todavía no está madura.

María Esparza Rodríguez Las flores en Xibalbá

Cuando los hermanos son invitados a Xibalbá, una de las pruebas a las que son sometidos por los señores del inframundo es la de recoger jícaras o recipientes de flores. En la versión de Recinos los hermanos deben llevar, “un ramo de chipilín colorado, un ramo de chipilín blanco, un ramo de chipilín amarillo y un ramo de Carinimac dijeron los de Xibalbá” (Recinos 2012: 84-85).

Mientras que en el texto de Sam Colop se da la siguiente traducción,

María Esparza Rodríguez Ixbalanqué: ¿Dios o Diosa?

Tanto en las traducciones de Recinos como Tedlock y Sam Colop se asume que los hijos de Ixquic son ambos masculinos, pues tal es la tradición iconográfica de los "dos muchachos" o "héroes gemélos".

María Esparza Rodríguez Ixquic y su rol de semidiosa

Sobre el tema de los roles de género en el Popol Wuj el enfoque se da principalmente en las jóvenes doncellas que participan o se ven forzadas a participar y servir en/para la sociedad altamente masculina en la que viven, Recinos (2012: 130-32, 143, 147) a la misma vez, en el texto también se nota la presencia de las doncellas que actúan por iniciativa propia e incluso en algunos casos quebrantan las reglas que les son impuestas, como en el caso de Ixquic, Recinos (2012: 58).

Nicole Bonino Ju su k'u stzaj tew / Rumal kutzina[q]
  • Folio 26 rectoColumn ALine 24Line 25

Christenson (Literal Poetic Translation, footnote 78, page 139) notes two scribal errors in the transcription of these toponyms. We cite his observations on lines 3998-4000 of the K'iche' column of Ximénez's manuscript below:

Ju su k'u stzaj tew

"The manuscript reads ztzah. The completive aspect should be xtzah, however, Mondloch (personal communication) points out that the completive aspect prefix x- is pronounced s- when it occurs before tz, tz' or s. Thus xsaqirik is pronounced saqirik."

Rumal kutzina[q]

Nicole Bonino Naquipa
  • Folio 27 rectoColumn ALine 25Line 25

"The manuscript reads qui which is likely a scribal error for cu" (Line 4034 in Christenson's Literal Poetic Translation, footnote 79, page 130)

Nicole Bonino La primera migración
  • Folio 35 versoColumn ALine 01Line 47
  • Folio 41 rectoColumn ALine 01Line 47
  • Folio 41 versoColumn ALine 01Line 47

En 1524, los españoles, bajo el mando de Pedro de Alvarado y por orden de Cortés, invadieron el territorio situado al sur de México. Allí se encontraron con las poblaciones de los quichés, cakchiqueles, los indios mames y los zutujiles, todos eran descendentes de los mayas. Las semejanzas físicas y lingüísticas de estos pueblos indígenas de Guatemala demuestran el parentesco que las unen y apoyan teoréticamente el concepto de la unidad racial maya-quiché (Recinos, 17).

Nicole Bonino La mezcla de idiomas
  • Folio 35 rectoColumn ALine 01Line 47
  • Folio 35 versoColumn ALine 01Line 47

Después de cumplir la primera migración hacia la ciudad de Tulán, las primeras tribus se unen por primera vez y reciben a sus dioses - los K'iche, los Tamub y los Ilokab, todos reciben como dios a Tojil - y lo mismo ocurre para los primeros hombres - Balam Quitzé con Tojil, Balam Aq'ab con Awilix, Majuk'utaj con Jaqawitz e Ik'ibalam con Nik'aqaj Taq'aj. En las ediciones de Gómez, Recinos y Tedlock se evidencia la gran cantidad de gente que acude a este lugar, “and they arrived there at Tulan, all of them, countless people arrived, walking in crowds” (Tedlock, 152).

Nicole Bonino La segunda migración
  • Folio 52 rectoColumn BLine 0147
  • Folio 52 versoColumn BLine 0147
  • Folio 53 rectoColumn BLine 0147
  • Folio 53 versoColumn BLine 01Linea 47

“And then they remembered what had been said about the east”: estas son las palabras con las cuales Tedlock empieza la quinta parte de su edición. Finalmente, durante la segunda y última fase migratoria de las primeras poblaciones originarias, estas deciden seguir los consejos de sus padres al irse hacia el este, “we are going to the east, where our fathers came from” (Tedlock, 179). Aquí, fundan una ciudad llamada, en la edición de Tedlock, Thorny Place, también conocido en K'iche' como "Chi K'ix". En este lugar residen por un largo periodo de tiempo, tienen hijos y viven en paz.

Benjamin Romero Salado Cuatro en espacio y tiempo
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn BLine 37Line 42

Para entender mejor el concepto de la cosmovisión en el Popol Wuj, Ameni compara las tradiciones espirituales y las prácticas cotidianas en las comunidades indígenas de Mesoamérica y los Andes. Concluye que “if Mesoamerica is all about time, the Andean world is all about space” (2015: 291).

Benjamin Romero Salado Dualidad y creación
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn BLine 17

La lista de dioses que aparece al comienzo de la creación en el Popol Wuj ha sido un debate común, especialmente entre las diferentes versiones de la misma obra. Según Rice (2007: 205), esto se debe en parte al estilo confuso de puntuación en esta enumeración y al hecho de que se citen en pareados. El mismo autor, analizando la versión de Christenson (2003: 60-62), concluye que solamente hay tres pares de dioses en la creación: “the Framer and the Shaper; Soverign and Quetzal Serpent (the latter, Q’ukmatz, being equivalent to Quetzalcoatl/Kukulcan); and Xmucane and Xpiyacoc”.

Allison Margaret Bigelow Cuatro esquinas
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn BLine 37Line 42

En la creación del cielo y la tierra, Ximénez (folio 1 recto) especifica que se reparte en “cuatro esquinas”, “cuatro lados” o “cuatro partes”. Esta reiteración del número cuatro para la división del cosmos en su creación es común entre otras versiones del Popol Wuj que sostienen la misma división cuadrangular. Recinos (1976: 27) relata cómo el cielo y la tierra “fue formado y repartido en cuatro partes”, así como “fue medido y se trajo la cuerda de medir y fue extendida en el cielo y en la tierra, en los cuatro ángulos, en los cuatro rincones”.

Catherine Addington "En tu sacro caystro son vulgares los Cisnes"
  • Escolio 05 rectoLine 19Line 21

Escolio 5 verso, lines 19–21

Echave edits Aguilar's original phrasing—"En tu sacro caystro son vulgares los Cisnes, que aprendieron, ò de Domingo, ò de Ferrer, el punto"—by adding Thomas Aquinas to this list of saints.

Catherine Addington de el ser de Díos
  • Escolio 04 recto
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn ALine 01

Folio 1 recto, column A, line 1
Escolio 4 recto, lines 1–2

Catherine Addington libro original
  • Escolio 04 versoLine 34Line 42
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn ALine 21
  • Folio 01 rectoColumn BLine 25Line 35

Folio 1 recto, column A, line 21

Folio 1 recto, column B, lines 25–35

Escolio 4 verso, lines 34–42

Catherine Addington Ixkik' as María
  • Escolio 04 verso
  • Folio 15 versoColumn BLine 37

Escolio 4 recto, line 25
Folio 15 verso, column B, line 37

In the Escolios, Ximénez connects the passage in which Ixkik’ is impregnated with Junajpu by the saliva of Jun Junajpu with Mary’s conception of Jesus by the Holy Spirit. His note in the Escolios includes the phrase “num.   fol.   ”, indicating that he intended to cite the page on which this scene occurs. But unlike other textual concordances in the Escolios, Ximénez did not fill in the numbers for this passage.

Catherine Addington expresa posita materia
  • Escolio 04 recto

Escolios: Folio 4, side 1, lines 14–20

The beginning of line 16 is unclear in the manuscript. I have transcribed it here as “exprE su posita materia,” though it can also be read as “expresa posita materia.” Karl Scherzer renders it as “expresa su posita materia,” filling in what Ximénez glossed over. We attach an image here so that readers can make their own interpretations, and share them with us.

Néstor Quiroa, working from the original manuscript, translates this paragraph as follows:

Catherine Addington Tun
  • Escolio 02 rectoLine 09
  • Escolio 02 verso
  • Escolio 03 rectoLine 05

Escolios: Folio 2, side 1, line 9
Escolios: Folio 2, side 2, line 46
Escolios: Folio 3, side 1, line 5

“Tun” means "drum" in K’iche. In his K’iche’-English dictionary, Allen Christenson gives “a small drum used for dances” as a definition for “la’j tun,” indicating that drums could accompany dances (or "bayle" as Ximénez spells it).

Catherine Addington "Errores" of equivalence
  • Escolio 02 recto

Escolios: Folio 2, side 1, lines 22–41

Here Ximénez recounts an incident that he also included in his Historia de la provincia. Because his conclusions in the Historia and Escolios differ substantially, we reproduce key lines from the Historia in full:

Allison Margaret Bigelow Nawal
  • Folio 02 rectoColumn ALine 25Line 25
  • Folio 50 rectoColumn ALine 27Line 27
  • Folio 51 versoColumn ALine 34Line 34
  • Folio 52 rectoColumn ALine 01Line 10
  • Folio 52 rectoColumn ALine 31Line 31
  • Folio 54 rectoColumn ALine 05Line 05
  • Folio 54 rectoColumn BLine 04Line 06

It is notable that Ximénez's Spanish translation preserves the indigenous Mesoamerican term for "life-spirit," nawal; more accurately, at times he keeps it, at times he removes it, and at times he translates it, variously as "rey" (king), "señor" (lord), and "grandeza" (greatness). We have identified these moments in the K'iche' and Spanish columns so that readers can compare Ximénez's choices.

Allison Margaret Bigelow Camino verde
  • Folio 23 versoColumn ALine 39Line 40

The first time in which we arrive at the crossroads of Xibalba ("la cruzijada"), through the eyes of Junajpu and Wuqub Junajpu, we see four paths: red, black, white, yellow. These points correspond to the cosmic order of the universe, as understood in Maya color symbolism and spiritual terms (red = east; black = west; white = north; yellow = south). The brothers take the black way, the route to the underworld. But whent the Hero Twins, Junajpu and Xbalanke, reach the crossroads in this passage, the yellow way has been replaced by the green way, or what Sam Colop (2011: note 149, p.

Catherine Addington duodernidad
  • Escolio 04 recto

Escolio 4 recto, lines 27–31

Ximénez employs the apparent neologism “duodernídad” to characterize the dual nature of divinity within the Popol Wuj. He specifically references Folio 1 recto of his Empiezan las historias… manuscript, in which deities are almost always mentioned in pairs: Tzaqol, Bitol; Alom, Qajolom.

Catherine Addington Confesionario
  • Escolio 05 recto
  • Escolio 06 recto

These are fragments of a “Confesionario en Lengua Quíche.” Ximénez included full confesionarios elsewhere in the manuscript.

Catherine Addington Apóstrofe a la "Religión de Domingo"
  • Escolio 05 verso

Escolios: Folio 5, side 2

The Newberry Library catalog record for the Ximénez manuscript describes this page as “an apostrophe praising the Dominican Order, dated Aug. 14, 1734 and signed ‘Echave’.” According to Ruud van Akkeren, “El mencionado Echave es fray Ignacio de Echave. Aparece por primera vez el 20 de julio 1732 y por última vez el 4 de diciembre 1735.”

Catherine Addington víñadores
  • Escolio 02 recto

Escolios: Folio 2, side 1, lines 3–6

Catherine Addington Deí ferebatur super aquas
  • Escolio 04 verso

Escolios: Folio 4, side 2, line 3 (“Gen 1. n. 2.”)
Escolios: Folio 4, side 2, line 4 (“Deí ferebatur super aquas”)

Here, Ximénez cites Genesis 1:2 from the Vulgate edition: et spiritus Dei ferebatur super aquas, “and the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.”

Catherine Addington “tan quam tabula rasa”
  • Escolio 03 rectoLine 18

Escolios: Folio 3, side 1, line 18

Catherine Addington Sembrar la palabra divina
  • Escolio 02 rectoLine 09
  • Escolio 02 versoLine 31

Escolios: Folio 2, side 1, line 9 (“malas semillas”)

Escolios: Folio 2, side 2, line 31 (“sembrador de la palabra dívína”)

Catherine Addington Historia de Remesal
  • Escolio 02 versoLine 41Line 42

Escolios, folio 2, side 2, lines 41–42

Here, Ximénez references a 1619 history of his own province, San Vicente de Chiapa y Guatemala, by Galician priest Fray Antonio de Remesal, O.P.

Catherine Addington Junta de Valladolid

Escolios: Folio 2, side 2, lines 40–41

Catherine Addington Theologia indorum
  • Escolio 02 rectoLine 17Line 21
  • Escolio 03 rectoLine 01
  • Escolio 04 rectoLine 05
  • Escolio 04 versoLine 44

Escolios: folio 2, side 1: lines 17–21
Escolios: folio 3, side 1: line 1
Escolios: folio 4, side 1, line 5
Escolios: folio 4, side 2, line 44

Catherine Addington La carta de Fray Alonso de Noreña
  • Escolio 01 versoLine 25Line 26

Escolios: folio 1, side 2: lines 25–26

This is a reference to material in the Tratado segundo, bound together with Empiezan las historias... (or the Popol Vuh) in Ayer MS 1515 at the Newberry Library.

Catherine Addington "níños, con barbas"
  • Escolio 01 versoLine3 21Line 25

Escolios: Folio 1, Side 2: Lines 21–25

In this passage, Ximénez likens his native parishioners to children, calling them “níños, con barbas.” He characterizes their disposition by citing Saint Paul (“como S. Pablo deçía de sí de su hedad pueril”), in an allusion to 1 Corinthians 13:11:

“When I was a child, I spoke like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child; when I became an adult, I put an end to childish ways.”

Catherine Addington Cosmographia liber
  • Escolio 01 rectoLine 11Line 15

Escolios: Folio 1, side 1, líneas 11–15

Ximénez cites Petrus Apianus's description of "los moradores de America" in chapter four (folio 34) of his Cosmographia liber (1548), available to read in Spanish here. That chapter, "de la Cosmographia de America," begins:

Matthew Richey Señor obispo (Francisco Marroquín)
  • Folio 50 versoColumn BLine 46

The legacy of Francisco Marroquín, founder and first bishop of the Archdiocese of Guatemala, would have been familiar to Ximénez and his contemporaries. Having accompanied Fray Juan de Zumárraga and “los letrados que [iban] a constituir la nueva audiencia” to Mexico in 1529 (Saenz 16), Marroquín arrives to Guatemala in 1530 to begin his service as parish priest, a position offered to him by Governor Pedro de Alvarado (Ibid., 19). Drawing from the chronicles of Dominican historian Antonio de Remesal, Karl Scherzer notes the following in his 1857 edition of the Popol Wuj:

Allison Margaret Bigelow Junajpu y Jun Junajpu
  • Folio 06 versoColumn ALine 39Folio 7 recto Column A Line 23

Here there is a notable divergence in the K'iche'- and Spanish-language rendering of names of the hero twins, Junajpu and Xbalanke.

Allison Margaret Bigelow Saquik
  • Folio 56 versoColumn ALine 23Line 26

Colop (2008: nota 408, página 218) observa que “Aquí se omite la identificación de los dos últimos linajes, el de los Saquik que en el folio 51r se les nombra como Tz’utuja y Q’alel Saqik.”

Allison Margaret Bigelow Chuwach Kaweqib
  • Folio 56 versoColumn ALine 27Line 28

Colop (2008: nota 409, página 219) observa una discrepancia entre las dos columnas. Escribe: “En la columna k’iche’ de la copia de Ximénez se omite por error chuwach Kaweqib, pero se reestablece en su traducción en español donde dice ‘de los caviquib’.”

Christenson (2004: note 121, p. 303) remarks on the discrepancy in the K'iche' and Spanish columns as such: "The phrase marked in parentheses does not appear in the K'iche' version of the text, but it does appear in the parallel translation provided by Ximénez."

Allison Margaret Bigelow Nima camha hun vnim ha
  • Folio 56 rectoColumn ALine 27Line 29
  • Folio 56 rectoColumn BLine 28Line 30

On folio 56r of the manuscript, Ximénez repeats the line "Nima camha hun vnim ha," placing it correctly as the 4th Lordship of the Great Houses of the Nija'ib lineage, and incorrectly placing it in the 6th position. Christenson (2007: 284) preserves the original error, while Colop (1999: 216) corrects it.

Colop (2008: notas 399-400, páginas 216-217) observa: "Conforme a la lista brindada en el folio 51r éste sería un título que se encuentra repetido como Nima K'amja en el sexto lugar, mencionado en la lista del folio 56r."