Matsumoto (2017:198 n 177) notes that "the ajpatan (lit. 'those of the tribute') were those who paid tribute (Carmack 1979:81; e.g., Coto 1983 :403; Guzmán 1984:68). In pre-Columbian times, patan referred not only to tribute duties but also to “a variety of obligations of life,” such as tending the milpa or aiding community members (Hill 1992:138). After the Conquest, its semantic field widened to include service and economic obligations to the colonial government and the Catholic Church (Hill 1992:138; e.g., Coto 1983 :377). More recently, ajpatan has come to refer specifically to members of local fraternities (cofradías) (Edmonson 1965:4)."