The Nija'ib' lineage of the K'iche' are the protagonists in at least six known land titles or títulos, which have been published in various forms and combinations by Recinos (1957), Carmack (1973, 2009), Crespo Morales (1968),  Alvarez Arévalo (1987), Ochoa Garcia (2016), and Matsumoto (2017). The latter publication provides the most comprehensive bibliography, ethnohistorical context, and linguistic analysis to date for five of these documents.


One of the thirteen allied lineages.

Christenson (p. 204, note 514): “The Lamacs, like the Cumatz with whom they are paired in this passage, apparently settled the area of present-day Sacapulas (Recinos 1950, 171 n. 6; Fox 1978, 76). There is a site known as Lamak-Zacapulas approximately five leagues north of Sacapulas (Villacorta and Villacorta 1930, 94; Fox 1978, 90)."

Tedlock (p. 346) adds that the Lamakib’ were resettled to Sacapulas during the colonial period.


Orden de Predicadores

The Order of Preachers (also known as the Dominican Order, and whose members are commonly called Dominicans or dominicos) is a Catholic religious order founded by Santo Domingo de Guzmán during the Albigensian Crusade and approved by Pope Honorius III in 1216. The order's charism, or main focus, historically centers around intellectual and educational activity in support of orthodox Catholic teaching.


Según apunta Sam Colop (2008: nota 395, página 216), ko' señala el estado noble del señor principal de los Nija'ib, mientras la voz k'iche' tz'iba-aj significa "casa de la pintura" o "casa de la escritura".

Allen Christenson (2007: note 872, p. 283) translates K'o Tz'ib'a Ja as "Lord Writing/Painting House."


Christenson (2007: note 871, p. 283) translates K'o Chajuj as "Lord Guardian."

Colop (2008: nota 395, página 216) señala que k'o quiere decir "noble", y que chajuj "probablemente se origina de chaj," término que significa "ocote, pino", o sea "el que enciende."


Son of Balam Aq'ab, the founder of the Nija'ib' lineage. Translators interpret the members of the second generation in different ways.

For example, Allen Christenson (2007: 256) identifies only one son of Balam Aq'ab: Co Acutec.

In contrast, Sam Colop (2008: 181) interprets the passage in parallel form, writing "K'o'akul se llamaba el primer hijo, / K'o'akutek le decían al segundo hijo de Balam Aq'ab, de los Nija'ib" (K'o'akul was the name of the first son, /K'a'akutek they said of the second son of Balam Aq'ab, of the Nija'ib people).


This “pueblo” of Dan is not found in subsequent translations of the Popol Wuj like that of Adrián Recinos or Sam Colop. In addition, the name is not phonetically consistent with toponyms or lineages in K’iche’. While the origin and exact meaning of this reference is unknown, Ximénez cited Dan’s appearance in the Popol Wuj in his other works as a way of supporting his theory on the place of native peoples in Christian salvation history.