Balam Aq'ab

One of the first four K’iche' men and the founder of the Nija’ib’ division. Aq'ab' means 'night' and b’alam literally means ‘jaguar’ but as a title can describe something as ‘mighty, powerful’ (Christenson 2007:196n477). Hence, his name could be translated as “jaguar night” and “mighty jaguar.” According to van Akkeren (2003:121), however, “Aq’aab’ is just another name for the Q’eqchi people.” In Ximenez's Spanish translation, his name is conflated with Don Ikib’alam into don yqui Balam Acab as one name (Alvarez Arévalo 1987:41).

Kaqulja Jun Raqan

Sobre la compleja identidad de esta figura divina, el notable lingüísta k'iche' Sam Colop (2008: 26-27n21) observa que "El manuscrito dice Uk'u'x Kaj, literalmente 'Corazón del Cielo': huracán que Ximénez traduce como 'un pie' debido a que la palabra se compone de jun, 'uno' y raqan, 'su -- pie'. Sin embargo, el significado de raqan es más amplio, en el diccionario de Coto se utiliza para designar cosas grandes, largas o altas. De hecho, en Coto, la paalbra para decir 'gigante' está asociado a hu rapah r'aqan.


Colop (2011: nota 8, página 202) explica el significado del nombre de la abuela, según la traducción del padre Ximénez, "quiere decir 'entierro o fosa'". Por su parte Adrián Recinos (1953: 83) afirma que "estos nombres equivalen a 'los dios mexicanos Cipactonal y Oxmoco, los sabios que según la leyenda tolteca inventaron la astrología judiciaria y compusieron la cuenta de los tiempos, o sea el calendario'.


Carmack (1981: page 50) says this diety "was possibly related to the merchant deity of the Gulf Coast peoples. The Popol Vuh informs us that bees and wasps were the symbol of this god, just as they represented the merchant deity of the coastal peoples."


Ixtziya'  is one of the goddesses invoked by Ixkik' to ensure she can return a netful of maize to Ixmukane. She has been interpreted differently across translationsm and in fact in some she is not her own specifcally named deity. Christenson reads her name as related to the calendar name Tz'i', meaning "dog" in K'iche' (2007: 139, note 314). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."


Ixq'anil is one of the goddesses invoked by Ixkik' [Lady Blood] in order to return a netful of maize to Ixmukane [the Grandmother]. Christenson relates her name to the calendar day Q'anil on the K'iche' calendar round (2007: 138, note 312). For more information, see the entry on "Goddesses of the Milpa."


Lady Blood, or Ixkik’, is the daughter of Kuchuma Kik’ (“Gathered Blood”), a Lord of Xibalba. She escapes from Xibalba after being impregnated by the skull of Jun Junajpu. Her encounters during her escape, and her role in the birth of the Hero Twins, Junajpu a Xb’alanke, portrays a powerful female figure in the Popol Wuj  in face of the Lords’ desire to sacrifice her.

Ik'i Balam

As Matsumoto (2017:201n186) summarizes, "According to the Popol Wuj, Ikib’alam was one of the first four men created." (See also Christenson 2003a:lines 4940–47). Unlike the other three, however, he died heirless and thus did not found a K’iche’ lineage (Christenson 2007:196n480; see Christenson 2003a:7240–41; also Carmack and Mondloch 1983:177).