Ximénez uses the abbreviation "Xpto." for "Cristo" or "Christ," originating in the Greek word "Χριστός" ("Christós").

In Christianity, Jesus Christ is the son of God and redeemer of humanity. The Catholic statement of belief professed by this text's author, Francisco Ximénez, reads:


God is the sole deity in Christian theology (among others), in which he consists in a Trinity of three Persons: Father, Son (or Jesus Christ), and Holy Spirit.

The compiler of the Popol Vuh manuscript, Fray Francisco Ximénez, was a Catholic priest. Catholic beliefs on God are summarized in the religion's statement of faith, also known as the Credo or Nicene Creed.

una persona

Christenson (2007: 202) notes that this Latin-language parenthetical aside, which he translates into English as "Demon speaking from here on," represents Ximénez's only explicit commentary in the text.

In his Literal Poetic Translation (2004), Christenson (2004: 192) adds, "This is a singular instance in which Ximénez glosses the text with a brief comment in Latin, referring to the messenger from Xibalba as a demon, or devil. That Ximénez chose to do this only once and in Latin argues for the overall accuracy of the Maya text as he transcribed it."


Described as a great lord from the east, Nacxit is responsible for distributing the signs and symbols of lordship (Ximenez Folio 48V).


Ixpuch' is one of the women sent by the enemy nations to seduce the gods of the K'iche' people, Tojil, Awilix, and Jaqawitz. Christenson provides two interpretations of this name: in one sense, it could be from the K'iche' word puch', which "is 'weeping from illness or pain rather than sadness'" or from the Keqchi or Poqom languages, where "puch is 'washing clothes,' with the connotation of 'menstruating'" (2007: 241, note 641).


Xtaj, translated as Lady Lust by Christenson, is one of the two women sent by the enemy nations to seduce the three gods of the K'iche' people, Tojil, Awilix, and Jaqawitz. According to Christenson, in the name Xtaj, "X- is the prefix indicating 'female,' or a diminuitive such as 'little.' Taj is 'sexual desire, lust, or promiscuity.'" (2007: 241, note 640). For more information, see the page on Xtaj and Xpuch.