Ik'i Balam

As Matsumoto (2017:201 n 186) summarizes, "According to the Popol Wuj, Ikib’alam was one of the first four men created (Christenson 2003a:lines 4940–47). Unlike the other three, however, he died heirless and thus did not found a K’iche’ lineage (Christenson 2007:196n480; see Christenson 2003a:7240–41; also Carmack and Mondloch 1983:177). The origin of the first segment of Ikib’alam remains obscure...Christenson (2007:196n480) transcribes Ik’i B’alam and proposes the possible K’iche’ etymology ‘wind jaguar’ (cf.

Ch'amiya Jolom

Jolom means “head” and “skull” (Christenson 2007: note 631, page 233). Christenson translates the name Ch'amiyajolom as "Skull Staff," because "As emblems of office, Quiché political and religious leaders carry staffs that are often topped with ornate silver cavings symbolizing divine power" (note 237, page 116).

Kuchuma Kik'

Christenson (2007: note 235, page 103) explains the name of this god as: "Kuchuma Kik' (Gathered Blood) is still known by Quiché storytellers as a cruel lord of the underworld who gathers blood shed upon the ground as a result of injury, illness, or violence. This blood is then served to his fellow lords at a banquet."

Ch'amiya Baq

Christenson (2004: line 3666) spells the name of the god, Ch'ami'ya B'aq, and translates the meaning as "Staff Bone." In his prose translation (2007: note 226, page 101), he adds, "Xbaquiyalo. The likely etymology of this name is x- (lady), baqi (bone), ya' (water/river), lo (perhaps), yielding Lady Bone Water. Tedlock notes that in Yucatec, bak ha' (also “bone water”) is the snowy egret or snowy heron, and thus translates the name as “Egret Woman” (D. Tedlock 1996, 250 n. 91)."

Jun Tijax

According to Ruud van Akkeren, "Jun Tijax," or "One Flintknife," is a name of the god Tojil. He characterizes Tojil as "essentially a god of sacrifice" who "may appear as a sacrificial knife." According to Ximénez, he had been equated with Saint Paul the Apostle.

Citing Ximénez, Ruud van Akkeren attributes this equivalence to the figures' similar iconography: "The Toj of Rab’inal chose San Pablo as their new patron saint because he carried a sword in his hand, which is confirmed by Ximénez who writes that San Pablo was known as Jun Tijax."


The Nahua goddess Xōchiquetzal was the mother of Quetzalcoatl. Ximénez equates Xōchiquetzal with the Maya goddess Ixkik'. He further states that his predecessors had, in his view, erroneously equated both goddesses with the Christian figure of Mary, the mother of God.


In Catholicism, Satan is a being who tempts humans to sin against God. As a demon, he is characterized as an angel (that is, an entirely spiritual, not physical, creature) who rebelled against God. Ximénez refers to him interchangeably as "la bestia infernal," "Satanas," and most frequently, "el demonío."

Espíritu Santo

Ximénez refers to the Holy Spirit as "el espíritu Sto.," "el espíritu de Díos" or "la tercera persona de la Santísima Trinidad." The Holy Spirit is characterized as the creative force of God in the biblical text of Genesis, which Ximénez compares to the creation account that begins the Popol Vuh.

In Christianity, the Holy Spirit is the third Person of the Trinity. The Catholic statement of faith, or Nicene Creed, says of the Holy Spirit: